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Referencing

Case Citation Elements

Reported Case

Example of AGLC case citation

Parties/Case Name (Year) Volume Number +Series Abbreviation +Starting page
OR
Parties/Case Name [Year] Unique Court Identifier + Judgment Number (Full Date)

 

Dates and brackets:

  • use round brackets ( ) when there is a unique volume number; or
  • use square brackets [ ] when citing unreported cases with medium neutral court identifiers or when the report series does not have a unique volume number.

Case Citations: Examples

2.2 Series with volume number

Patrick Stevedores Operations No 2 Pty Ltd v Maritime Union of Australia (1998) 195 CLR 1

 

2.2 Series without volume numbers

R v Cameron [1983] 2 NSWLR 66

 

2.8.1 Medium neutral citation

Ludlam v Johnston [2014] HCA 1 (21 January 2014)

 

2.8.2 Unreported citation without a medium neutral citation

Evans v Bristile Limited (Unreported, Supreme Court of Western Australia, Wallwork J, 24 July 1992)

 

2.12.1 Transcript of Proceedings and Sentencing Remarks

Transcript of Proceedings, R v Esau Pascoe (Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, SCC21345256, Riley CJ, 17 July 2014)

 

23.1.1 Series with volume number (UK)

Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) AC 562

 

23.1.3 Nominate Reports (UK)

Dixon v Bell (1816) 1 Starke 287; (1816) 105 ER 1023

 

24 United States of America

JJ Ryan & Sons v Rhone Poulenc Textiles SA, 863 F2d 315 (1998)

 

9.2 International Court of Justice

Peru v Chile (Judgment) [2014] ICJ 2

Cases Cited in Footnotes

Party v Party (date) volume, series abbreviation or court identifier,  page number, pinpoint page [pinpoint paragraph number, if available]

2.2 If the parties names are fully cited in text you do not need to include the parties in the footnotes.  Citations immediately following the first can use Ibid, but later citations must give the citation in full.
 

Example in text:

First and subsequent footnote citations:

3   (2014) 88 ALJR 701, 710 [38].
4   Ibid 711 [45].
8   Williams v Commonwealth (2014) 88 ALJR 701, 715 [76].
If  parties names are omitted or only partially cited in the text you must give the full case citation in the footnotes.

 

Example in text:

Second and subsequent footnote citations:

27   Patrick Stevedores Operations No 2 Pty Ltd v Maritime Union of Australia (1998) 195 CLR 1, 27 [24]
28  Ibid 37 [50].
29  Ibid 39 [55].
50  Patrick Stevedores Operations No 2 Pty Ltd v Maritime Union of Australia (1998) 195 CLR 1, 74 [165].

Rule 2 - Cases

The guidelines presented on these pages are consistent with advice given in AGLC3 and should be followed carefully.

AGLC3 is medium neutral which means there is no need to indicate the source, print or online, in the case citation or reference.   It is important to comply with the citation hierarchy along with the rules outlined below.  This is not a comprehensive review of AGLC3 rules but a guideline of the rules most frequently applied.

Citation hierarchy in order of preference (according to rule 2.3.1)

  1. Authorised (See authorised reports)
  2. General unauthorised
  3. Subject specific unauthorised
  4. Unreported or  medium neutral

Notes:

  • pinpoint references may include paragraph numbers if available (rule 1.15-1.16);
  • acceptable abbreviations of parties names are detailed in rule 2.1;
  • parallel citation should not be used for Australian cases (rule 2.3.1) but are used for early UK reports (rule 23.1.3) and early US decisions (rule 24.1.3); and
  • decisions without a Medium Neutral Citation which are cited in court may require alternative citation formats.  In those instances students should consult the Practice Directions of the relevant court.

Parties names rule 2:

  • rule 2.1–2.1.6  deals exhaustively with the requirement for citing party names including business names, states names, the Crown,  government  departments and ministers;
  • rule 2.1.1: Where parties to a case are individuals, given names and initials should be omitted;
  • rule 2.1.1: Where there are many parties to the case, only the first named plaintiff and defendant should be included in the citation and the abbreviations  & Anor  and & Ors should not be used; and
  • rule 2.18–2.1.10 details how cases including Re, Ex parte, and ex rel in the party names should be cited.

For more information read:

  • Part I  which outline the conventions used across all legal sources;
  • Part II, Rule 2: Domestic Sources- Cases;
  • Part IV, Rule 9 International Sources - Cases; and
  • Part V, Foreign Domestic Materials - rules for individual countries.

The Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations is invaluable for matching abbreviations to series names and court identifiers: