Skip to main content
Notre Dame 5 Star University
University Library

 

 

Referencing

Main Elements

Image showing Main Elements for Multimedia in APA Style

New to this Guide? Key Questions:

How do I include authors for different types of media?

What kind of locator information (URL) should I use?

How do I reference different types of media, such as...
• Podcast
• Video File 
• YouTube
• Whole TV Series
• Single TV Episode
• DVD Film
• Images


Click on the links below to learn more about:

Author | Date | Title | Type | Locator Information

Author(s)

Multiple authors: When there are two authors, put “and” between the authors’ names in the running text of your paper but put “&” between the names if the citation appears in parentheses.

Groups as authors: If a company, institution, government body, religious organisationr other type oforganisation is the author, use the organisation’s name as the author. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation.In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

Television, films, documentaries: When citing television series and movies, you must use the producer(s) and director as your author, not the writer or story author. The exception is if you are citing a single episode of a television series. For that you will need the writer and director of the episode as well as the producers and creators.

YouTube, Tumblr, Facebook: When citing resources where the author may have a full name, a user name, or a combination thereof, you must include all available. If a full name is available, use it as your author name, and place the user name in square brackets: Smith, J. [jtothesmith]. If only a username is available, use it in place of an author name.

Date

Dates appear in brackets (2010) in text and in the reference list. For items published to YouTube or broadcast on television, you will need to put in the full date of upload or broadcast.

Title

Must be italicized and lower case except for the first word and any proper nouns. For episodes of a series, only the SERIES title is italicised. The episode title is normal case, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalised.

Type

Provide a brief description of the type of item you are citing. Descriptions may include DVD, Video file, Podcast, Television series, and others. Place the description in square brackets after the title in the reference list.

Locator Information

If the item is available freely on the web, include the URL. If the item is behind a paywall, such as with a database, use the homepage of the database, and substitute the term Available from, rather than retrieved from. If the item is a hardcopy, such as a DVD or CD, include the country of origin and the publisher or studio.