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Religious and Classical Works

Image showing bible pages

Religious and Classical Works are cited differently from most other forms of material. These items are often thousands of years old, have been published multiple times and in many languages, and are well known throughout the world. Therefore, you only need to cite these items within the text of your essay, unless you are using a translated copy.

Translations are common with ancient Greek or Roman texts, and you will usually be able to find translation details on the title page or cover. Because translations can vary, you should include the information for the specific item you are using in your reference list.

Image: Solana, J. (2013). Bibles / Biblias (Explore). Retrieved from


Items such as the Bible do not require an author, but you need to specify which version you are using in brackets the first time you refer to the Bible in text


Works that have been translated must include the date of translation. If there is an original date of publishing available, place it before the translated date in your in text citation, but use only the translated date in your reference list.
Ancient works without a clear date of original publication, such as the Bible, do not require a date.


Bible or Qur'an: Always use the chapter and verse, rather than page numbers. If this is the first reference to the Bible in your essay, include the version as well.


In your reference list, place the translator's name in brackets after the title, along with the abbreviation Trans. Use the date of the translated work for publication year.

Ancient classic: Use the year of the translation, along with the abbreviation (trans.) for classical works without an original year of publication. 

Modern classic: Include both the year of original publication and the year of translation in the in text reference.