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Website Reference Main Elements

Image showing Main Elements for Web Resources in APA Style

New to this Guide? Key Questions:

How do I include organisations as authors?

What kind of locator information (URL) should I use?

How do I reference different types of web materials such as...
• Social media
• Powerpoint presentations
• PDF documents
• Government reports

Click on the links below to learn more about:

Author(s) | Date | Title of Document | Format Type | URL


Multiple authors: Author rules for web resources are the same as for books and journals. 

Groups as authors: If a company, institution, government body, religious organisation or other type of organisation is the author, use the organisation’s name as the author. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

Screen names: If a screen name (alias) is used instead of a formal name, use the screen name provided (e.g. WanderingPsych82).

No author: If there is no author listed, put the title of the document in place of the author (note: always question the validity of web resources that have no author).


If content is published regularly (for example,social media posts) provide the full date. If not, provide the year only. If there is no date, include the abbreviation (n.d.).

Title of Document

Must be all in sentence case and italicised, except for titles of blog posts, tweets, status updates, and comments, which are not italicised.

Format Type

Describe the format type in square brackets for certain formats, according to the examples listed above, e.g. [Tweet], [Blog post]


Include a retrieval statement and the full URL of the web resource.