The following list contains examples of references formatted for journal articles.
The Chicago Manual of Style chapter numbers are included so that more information can be located easily in either the print or online manual. Use the numbers as a reference for the relevant sections in the print volume, or link straight through to the Chicago Manual of Style Online from this guide.
Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, eg. Augustine, Plato, Elizabeth I.
The order of an article's authors in a single citation should reflect how they are represented in the article credits. DO NOT change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.
In a first footnote, the authors' names are all first name first.
In a short footnote, only the surnames are given.
In a bibliography, the first (or only) author's name is listed last name first so the bibliography can be in alphabetical order using surnames; additional authors follow with first names first.
In a footnote (full and short forms), cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.
In a bibliography, with four to ten authors list all the authors. For more than ten authors list the first seven, then et. al.
Word order and punctuation are the same as for the bibliography rule for two or three authors.
Should be enclosed in double quotation marks and use headline capitalisation.
Should be italicised with headline capitalisation.
If the title contains the article "The", please omit.
The volume and year are required for journals, as well as the month or issue number if available. There is no punctuation between the journal title and the volume number.
The year is listed in brackets after the volume or issue number (if any), and may be preceded by an exact date, a month, or a season,
eg: ... 17, no. 2 (April 2013).
Page numbers if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (eg. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the paragraph number or section heading.
In footnote citations: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: the full article's range of pages should be cited.
Where available, Chicago recommends the use of DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) or URLs (Universal Resource Locators).
DOIs are preferred to URLs.
In a citation, a DOI should be written doi:10.1086/ahr.133.3.752. There is no space after the colon, and no http://
If using a URL (e.g. in the case of an online newspaper), look for a stable/persistent version, often available along with the electronic article (e.g. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23356366). If a stable link is not available, include the name of the database the article was obtained from.
A full stop is included at the end of either identifier.