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Chicago Footnote Elements

Any time you use an idea or quote in your paper from another source, it should be acknowledged in a footnote, including the page number the quote or idea was retrieved from, as well as an entry in the bibliography.

The main components of Chicago Notes & Bibliography style are:

  1. First full footnote citation
  2. Second and subsequent short footnote citations
  3. Bibliography citation


Reference Components and Examples

Placement of footnotes

In the text, a superscript footnote number should be placed at the end of a sentence, quotation or clause - ie following any punctuation mark except for a dash:

Murphy and Roberts claim "the Romantics gave priority to ... literature over technology."¹

The corresponding footnote number should appear at the bottom of the same page, and contain the reference to the relevant source, including the page number:

1. Peter Murphy and David Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism (Maldon, MA: Continuum, 2005), 79.
2. Barry Allen, Knowledge and Civilisation (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004), 244.
3. Murphy and Roberts, Romanticism, 148.

Short form citations

Having already provided the full citation in an earlier footnote, subsequent mentions of a work may be shortened in one of two ways:

14.28  The title may be abbreviated using up to four relevant words from the full title
14.29  Ibid. may be used

Ibid. (abbreviation for Ibidem meaning "in the same place"; do not italicise) can be used when referring to the reference occurring immediately before it.  Add the page number only if different:

3. Peter Murphy and David Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism (Maldon, MA: Continuum, 2005), 148.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid., 143.
6. Murray Pittock, The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011), 75-76, Ebrary ebook.
7. Murphy and Roberts, Romanticism, 152.

If Ibid. is used, then it should be used consistently throughout the paper.

Bibliography citations

The bibliography should be placed at the end of your assignment and begun on a new page.  It should have the word Bibliography as a heading, centred above your list of references. 

List entries in alphabetical order of the sole or first author's surname, or title if the author is not known (see further examples in this guide).

Image showing a Bibliography example