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Referencing

Chicago Footnotes Overview

Any time you use an idea or quote from another source, it should be acknowledged in a footnote, including the page number the quote or idea was retrieved from, as well as an entry in the bibliography.

The main components of Chicago Notes & Bibliography style are:

  1. First footnote citation
  2. Subsequent, short form footnote citations
  3. Bibliography

See examples below.

Placement of Footnotes

In the text, a superscript number should generally be placed at the end of a sentence, clause, or quotation. The number follows any punctuation mark except for a dash:

Murphy and Roberts claim "the Romantics gave priority to ... literature over technology."¹

The corresponding footnote number appears at the bottom of the same page and should contain the reference to the relevant source, including the page number:

1. Peter Murphy and David Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism (Maldon, MA: Continuum, 2005), 79.

Short Form Footnotes

Having already provided the full citation in an earlier footnote, subsequent mentions of a work may be shortened in one of two ways:

14.33  The title may be shortened to contain the key word or words from the main title. Titles of four words or less are rarely shortened.
14.34  The title of a work just cited may be omitted so the footnote includes the author only, and relevant page number

The author only form is used only when referring to the previous item cited. The page reference must be repeated even if it is the same as the last-cited location:

3. Murphy and Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism, 143.
4. Murphy and Roberts, 143.
5. Murray Pittock, The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011), 75-76.
6. Murphy and Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism, 145.
7. Pittock, Scottish Romanticism, 78.

Bibliography

The bibliography should be placed at the end of your assignment and begun on a new page.  It should have the word Bibliography as a heading, centred above your list of references. 

The bibliography includes all texts cited, as well as other particularly relevant texts that may have been consulted while researching the paper, but may not have been directly mentioned.

List entries in alphabetical order by the sole or first author's surname, or the title if the author is not known (see further examples in this guide).