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The following list contains examples of references formatted for books. 

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked to so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Image showing Main Elements for Books in Chicago Footnotes Style



Click on the links below to learn more about:

Authors Titles Page Numbers  |  URLs/DOIs  |  Reference Works  |  Publisher Names  |  Publisher Locations

Footnote & Bibliography Examples

Works by saints, monarchs etc.: 14.74

One author or editor: 14.75

Two or three authors or editors: 14.76

Four to ten authors or editors: 14.76

No author: 14.79

Edited work: 14.87

Translated works: 14.88

Organisation as an author: 14.92

Chapter in an edited work: 14.112

Edition other than the first: 14.118

eBook: 14.166

Books consulted online: 14.167

Electronic edition of older works: 14.169

Encyclopaedia / Dictionary - author: 14.247

Encyclopaedia / Dictionary - no author: 14.247

Encyclopaedia / Dictionary - online: 14.248

Explanatory Notes

14.69 Main elements

The following elements should be considered when putting together a citation. Not all references will need all the information, and the order may also sometimes be different. Please explore variations either in this guide or in the Chicago manual.


  1. Author: full name of author(s) or editor(s) or, if no author or editor is listed, name of institution standing in their place

  2. Title: full title of the book, including subtitle if there is one

  3. Editor, compiler, or translator, if any, if listed on title page in addition to author

  4. Edition, if not the first

  5. Volume: total number of volumes if multivolume work is referred to as a whole; individual number if single volume of multivolume work is cited, and title of individual volume if applicable

  6. Series title if applicable, and volume number within series if series is numbered

  7. Facts of publication: city, publisher, and date

  8. Page number or numbers if applicable

  9. For electronic books consulted online, a URL or DOI, or, for other types of electronic books, an indication of the medium consulted (e.g., DVD, CD-ROM)


14.72 Form of author's name:

Given names should be used without titles, degrees or affiliations, and where possible the full name rather than initials.

14.74 Single names:

Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, eg. Augustine, Plato, Elizabeth I.

14.75 Name order:

The order of an article's authors in a single citation should reflect how they are represented in the article credits. DO NOT change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.

In a first footnote, the authors' names are all first name first.

In a short footnote, only the surnames are given.

In a bibliography, the first (or only) author's name is listed last name first so the bibliography can be in alphabetical order using surnames; additional authors follow with first names first.

14.76 Four or more authors:

In a footnote (full and short forms), cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

In a bibliography, with four to ten authors list all the authors. For more than ten authors list the first seven, then et. al.

Word order and punctuation are the same as for the bibliography rule for two or three authors.

See the Chicago manual for more on:

14.63-66    Repeated names in a bibliography: the 3-em dash

14.79         Anonymous works

14.92         Organisations as authors



Titles of books should be in italics and use headline capitalisation.

No author   When listing a title with no author in the bibliography, where the title contains an article at the beginning (such as The, An, A), ignore the initial article and place according to the first significant word – in this example, the book would still retain the "A" but be listed under “True”.

Page Numbers

Page numbers if available, are required for all footnotes.  In the absence of page numbers (eg. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the paragraph number or section heading.

In the bibliography, page numbers should only be used for book chapters.

Reference Works

Well-known reference works: 14.247

"Well-known reference works, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than in bibliographies.

The facts of publication are often omitted, but the edition (if not the first) must be specified.

References to an alphabetically arranged work cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (sub verbo, “under the word”; pl. s.vv.)"

Publisher Names

The can be omitted from a publisher’s name, as can Inc., Ltd., or S.A., Co., & Co., and Publishing Co.  Press can also often be left off, but always use Press with a university.

Publisher Locations

Chicago stipulates that an abbreviation for the state or country be used only if the city of publication is unknown to the reader, e.g.

St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin
Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books
Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press

For the USA, use the two letter postal abbreviation of states; for the UK, just use UK.


14.166 Electronic books

In the case of eBooks, a statement regarding the online location of the book is required in addition to the publisher information.

14.166 For eBooks located through the library, the location is the eBook "platform" (see example above) e.g. Proquest Ebook Central, Oxford Scholarship Online, or ACLS Humanities Ebook.

14.167 For books consulted online (i.e. not library resources), Chicago recommends the use of DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) or URLs (Universal Resource Locators).

The online locators are always placed at the very end of the citation.

14.4 Electronic resource identifiers

A DOI should be written doi:10.1086/ahr.133.3.752. There is no space after the colon, and no http://

If using a URL, look for a stable/persistent version, often available along with the eBook (e.g.

A full stop is included at the end of the identifier.