The following list contains examples of references formatted for books.
The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked to so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.
Multiple authors of the same work are listed in the order in which they appear with the source. Do not change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.
In a first footnote, the authors' names are given in normal order (i.e. first name first).
In a short form footnote, only the surnames are given.
In a bibliography, only the first author's name is inverted (i.e. surname first). Additional authors' names follow in normal order.
In a first footnote, only the name of the first author is included, followed by et al.
In a short form footnote, only include the first author's surname followed by et al.
In a bibliography, list all the authors. (For more than ten authors, list the first seven then et al.)
Word order and punctuation are the same as for the rule for two or three authors.
Authors’ names are normally given as they appear with the source. If an author uses his or her given name in one work and initials in another, use preferably the full name when citing both, for consistency.
Omit any degrees and affiliations following names.
Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as King or Saint are omitted.
If the city of publication is unknown to readers, include the abbreviation for the state (or country), e.g.:
St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin
Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books
Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press
For the USA, use the two letter postal abbreviation of states; for the UK, just use UK.
Page numbers, if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (e.g. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the chapter number or section heading.
In footnote citations: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: only required when citing a book chapter - give the beginning and ending page numbers.
Some eBooks with scrollable text may not have fixed page numbers. In such cases it is best to cite a chapter number or a section heading in the footnote e.g. Robinson, Twentieth Century Poetry, chap. 5.
In the case of eBooks, a URL based on a DOI is required in addition to the publisher information. Append the DOI to https://doi.org/ to form a URL (e.g. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315817224).
If a DOI is not available, list the name of the commercial eBook platform/database rather than provide any URL e.g. Proquest Ebook Central, Oxford Scholarship Online, ACLS Humanities Ebook.