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Interviews & Personal Communications

The following list contains examples of references formatted for interviews and personal communications. 

The Chicago Manual of Style chapter numbers are included so that more information can be located easily in either the print or online manual.  Use the numbers as a reference for the relevant sections in the print volume, or link straight through to the Chicago Manual of Style Online from this guide.

Footnote & Bibliography examples

Letters in published collections:14.117
Collections of (original) letters and the like: 14.239
Unpublished interview or personal communication: 14.219
Unpublished interview with a person who wishes to remain anonymous: 14.220
Published interview: 14.221
Published interview from online source: 14.221
Personal Communication: 14.222
Electronic mailing lists: 14.223

Explanatory notes


14.74 Single names:

Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name. E.g. Augustine, Plato, John Paul II.

14.75 Name order:

In a footnote, the author’s name is given in the normal order (first name first). In the short form of the citation, only the last name is given.

In a bibliography, where names are arranged alphabetically, the first (or only) author's name is inverted (last name first); other authors remain in normal order.

14.76 Four or more authors:

In a footnote (full and short forms), cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

In a bibliography, with four or more authors, list all the authors. Word order and punctuation are the same as for the bibliography rule for two or three authors.

See also:

14.63-66 Repeated names in a bibliography: the 3-em dash
14.79 Anonymous works
14.92 Organisations as authors



The person being interviewed is usually cited first, the interviewer comes second if mentioned.




Titles of encompassing work (e.g. book, newspaper etc) should be in italics and use headline capitalisation.



14.7 Access dates

"Chicago does not ... require access dates in its published citations of electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source"


Page numbers

In footnote citations, only give the page numbers specific to the location of where you found the quote/idea.

In the bibliography, the range of pages should be cited.  If no page numbers are available (eg some electronic formats) use the section heading or subheading etc., however this is not strictly required.



14.4 Electonic Resource Identifiers