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The following list contains examples of references formatted for multimedia. 

The Chicago Manual of Style chapter numbers are included so that more information can be located easily in either the print or online manual.  Use the numbers as a reference for the relevant sections in the print volume, or link straight through to the Chicago Manual of Style Online from this guide.

Image showing Main Elements for Multimedia in Chicago Footnotes Style



Click on the links below to learn more about:

General  |  Authors  |  Titles  |  Dates  |  URLs/DOIs

Footnote & Bibliography Examples

YouTube video: 14.280
Streaming video (database): 14.271
Image (web): 14.280
Image (database): 14.271
DVD (film): 14.279
Television series (single episode on DVD): 14.279
Television series (full): 14.279
Podcast: 14.221

Explanatory Notes

References for mulitimedia usually include some or all of the following pieces of information:

  • the name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content;
  • the title, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable (see 8.192);
  • the name of the recording company or publisher;
  • any identifying number of the recording;
  • indication of medium (compact disc, audiocassette, audiovisual file, etc.);
  • the copyright date or date of production or performance.

Recordings consulted online should include a URL or DOI . Supplementary information, such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable, may also be given.


14.74 Single names:

Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name. E.g. Augustine, Plato, Elizabeth I.


14.75 Name order:

In a footnote, the author’s name is given in the normal order (first name first). In the short form of the citation, only the last name is given.

In a bibliography, where names are arranged alphabetically, the first (or only) author's name is inverted (last name first); other authors remain in normal order.


14.76 Four or more authors:

In a footnote (full and short forms), cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

In a bibliography, with four or more authors, list all the authors. Word order and punctuation are the same as for the bibliography rule for two or three authors.


See also:

14.63-66 Repeated names in a bibliography: the 3-em dash

14.79 Anonymous works
14.92 Organisations as authors


Should be in Headline case and in italics or quotation marks, as applicable.


The copyright date or date of production or performance should be used, or the date the material was last modified or updated.

If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. 


14.184 Electronic journal articles

DOIs are preferred to URLs.  In a citation, it should be written doi:10.1086/ahr.133.3.752

There is no space after the colon, and no http://