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Referencing

Multimedia

The following list contains examples of references formatted for multimedia. 

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked to so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Bibliography Entry

Example of Chicago Multimedia Bibliography citation


Click on the links below to learn more about:

Main Elements  | Creators  |  Titles   Dates 

Footnote & Bibliography Examples

Video and film resources: 14.265

CMOS 14.265: "Citations of video and film recordings, ... will vary according to the nature of the material (television show, movie, etc.). Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number. Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title."

 

Online multimedia, including YouTube videos, podcasts: 14.267

CMOS 14.267: "Cite online multimedia according to the recommendations throughout this section; include a URL as the final element of the citation (see also 14.261) [or a database name]. If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. ... If the material is a recording of a speech or other performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source. Whether to list information about the original or the digitized copy first will depend on the information available and is usually up to the author. Copies of sources that are under copyright and which have been posted without ties to any publisher or sponsor should be cited with caution. For multimedia designed to run in a web browser, a file format does not need to be mentioned; if a downloadable file was consulted [for example MP3, MPEG], specify format..."

  • Citations of videos and podcasts can normally be limited to the footnotes or woven into the text. If a source is critical to your essay or frequently cited you may include it in your bibliography.

 

Images: 14.235

CMOS 14.235: "Information about paintings, photographs, sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a note or bibliography. If a note or bibliography entry is needed, list the artist, a title (in italics), and a date of creation or completion, followed by information about the medium and the location of the work. For works consulted online, add a URL."

Explanatory Notes

Main elements: 14.261 - 14.268

14.261 The citation for recordings and other multimedia content usually includes some or all of the following elements:

  1. The name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content. Include designations such as vocalist, conductor, or director as appropriate.
  2. The title of the work, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable.
  3. Information about the work, including the names of additional contributors and the date and location of the recording, production, or performance.
  4. Information about the publisher, including date of publication.
  5. Information about the medium or format (e.g., LP, DVD, MP3, AVI). Supplementary information, such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable, may also be given.
  6. Any additional information that might be relevant to the citation.
  7. For sources consulted online, a URL (see 14.6–18).

The order of these elements—and which ones are included—will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation.

Creators

Use and order of names: 14.261

Include one, some, or all of the people primarily responsible for the content. The order of these elements—and which ones are included—will depend not only on the nature of the source but also on whether a part or the whole of a work is cited and whether a particular contributor is the focus of the citation. Consider the director, producer, composer, writer, performer.

A citation may begin with a title in a footnote rather than a creator.

In a bibliography entry, the author, performer, or other primary contributor such as director etc. should be listed first if known (see Mao's Last Dancer example in the Video and Film section above).

 

Titles

Titles of works: 14.263 & 8.197

Titles of works should be in headline case and in italics or quotation marks, as applicable. Indexed scenes in film are treated as chapters and enclosed in quotation marks, as are TV episode titles; full film and TV series titles are italicised.

Dates

Dates: 14.261 & 14.265

The date of recording, production or performance should be used or the date the material was last modified, updated or uploaded.

In the case of a work being converted to a different format/medium, you may need to use two sets of dates such as in the Examined Life DVD example above: the first is the original film/programme production date, the second indicates the later DVD release date.

If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed by you.