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Referencing

Articles

The following list contains examples of references formatted for journal articles. 

The Chicago Manual of Style chapter numbers are included so that more information can be located easily in either the print or online manual.  Use the numbers as a reference for the relevant sections in the print volume, or link straight through to the Chicago Manual of Style Online from this guide.

Image showing Main Elements for Articles in Chicago Footnotes Style

 


Click on the links below to learn more about:

Authors Titles Dates Page Numbers URLs/DOIs

Footnote & Bibliography examples

Journal article14.180

Journal article (volume or date missing): 14.181

Journal article with DOI: 14.184

Journal article from database with no DOI: 14.271

Magazine article: 14.199

Magazine article online: 14.200

Newspaper article: 14.203

Newspaper article from an online newspaper: 14.203

Reviews of plays, films etc: 14.216

Explanatory notes

Authors


14.74 Single names:

Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, eg. Augustine, Plato, Elizabeth I.
 

14.75 Name order:

The order of an article's authors in a single citation should reflect how they are represented in the article credits. DO NOT change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.

In a first footnote, the authors' names are all first name first.

In a short footnote, only the surnames are given.

In a bibliography, the first (or only) author's name is listed last name first so the bibliography can be in alphabetical order using surnames; additional authors follow with first names first.
 

14.76 Four or more authors:

In a footnote (full and short forms), cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

In a bibliography, with four to ten authors list all the authors. For more than ten authors list the first seven, then et. al.

Word order and punctuation are the same as for the bibliography rule for two or three authors.
 

See the Chicago manual for more on:
 

14.63-66    Repeated names in a bibliography: the 3-em dash

14.79         Anonymous works

14.92         Organisations as authors

14.207       Unsigned newspaper articles

Titles


14.176 Article titles

Should be enclosed in double quotation marks and use headline capitalisation.

 

14.179 Periodical titles

Should be italicised with headline capitalisation.

 

14.210 Newspaper titles

If the title contains the article "The", please omit.

 

Volume, Issue and Date


14.171 Periodicals - general

The volume and year are required for journals, as well as the month or issue number if available.  There is no punctuation between the journal title and the volume number.

Newspapers and most magazines should just cite the specific date (month, day, and year) instead of volume and issue numbers. See 14.172 and 14.199
 

14.180 For journal articles

The year is listed in brackets after the volume or issue number (if any), and may be preceded by an exact date, a month, or a season,

eg: ... 17, no. 2 (April 2013).

Page Numbers


14.174 Page numbers

Page numbers if available, are required for all footnotes.  In the absence of page numbers (eg. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the paragraph number or section heading.

In footnote citations: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: the full article's range of pages should be cited.

URLs & DOIs


14.4 Electonic Resource Identifiers

Where available, Chicago recommends the use of URLs (Universal Resource Locators) or DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers).

DOIs are preferred to URLs. 

14.184 Electronic journal articles

In a citation, a DOI should be written doi:10.1086/ahr.133.3.752. There is no space after the colon, and no http://

If using a URL (eg in the case of an online newspaper), use the full URL from the browser when the article is open, unless a shorter version is available along with the electronic article (eg http://www.jstor.org/stable/23356366).

A full stop is included at the end of either identifier.