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Referencing

Web resources

The list below contains examples of references formatted as web resources.

The Chicago Manual of Style chapter numbers are included so that more information can be located easily in either the print or online manual. Use the numbers as a reference for the relevant sections in the print volume, or link straight through to the Chicago Manual of Style Online from this guide.

Image showing Main Elements for Web Resources in Chicago Footnotes Style

For more information on the particular parts of the citation, please see the Explanatory notes at the bottom of the page, or the Chicago Manual from chapter 14.242 onwards, and 14.4 - 14.13.


Click on the links below to learn more about:

Footnote Style  |  Bibliography Style  |  Explanatory Notes

General Titles Information deleted/updated Dates URLs/DOIs

Footnote & Bibliography examples

Webpage: 14.245
Webpage - corporate author: 14.245
Webpage - no date: 14.245
Webpage - no author: 14.245
Facebook status update: 14.245
Blog post: 14.246
Blog comment: 14.246
Powerpoint slides - online
Government report online: 14.249
PDF (or standalone document) found on website: 14.249

Explanatory notes

General: 14.245

Include the title/description of the page, the author of the content (if any), the owner or sponsor of the site, and a URL.

 

Titles: 14.244

"Titles of websites are generally set in roman without quotation marks. ... Titled sections or [web]pages within a website should be placed in quotation marks." If the website title is not obvious, use either the entity responsible for the site (eg Microsoft), or the main part of the URL (eg Microsoft.com).

"Specific titles of blogswhich are analogous to periodicalsshould be set in italics; titles of blog entries (analogous to articles in a periodical) should be in quotation marks."

 

Information deleted/updated: 14.245

"If a site ceases to exist before publication, or if the information cited is modified or deleted, such information should be included in the text or note." (See Webpage with no author example)

 

Dates: 14.245

Include a publication date, or date of revision or modification for the website/page.  If one cannot be found, include the date you last accessed the site. - see below...

"An access date—that is, the self-reported date on which an author consulted a source—is of limited value: previous versions will often be unavailable to readers; authors typically consult a source any number of times over the course of days or months; and the accuracy of such dates, once recorded, cannot readily be verified by editors or publishers. Chicago does not therefore require access dates in its published citations of electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source (see 14.8). ...[though] ... [s]tudents are typically required to include access dates for citations of online sources in their papers."

 

 URLs/DOIs and line breaks: 14.12

"In a printed work, if a URL or DOI has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made 

  • after a colon or a double slash (//); 
  • before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol;
  • or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand."