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Other Sources

Overview : This page provides examples for sources that don't fit into simple categories. Have we missed anything? Let us know and we will add an example.


New to this Guide? Key Questions:

How do I reference:

Can I use a source if I don't have the original but saw it reported in another work (a "source within a source")?

Theses and Dissertations

Online: If a thesis has been retrieved from a database (usually an institutional repository), indicate the database and give any accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the reference. The name and location of the institution is not included.

Print: Treat a printed dissertation or thesis as a book. A reference to an unpublished printed dissertation or thesis should include:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle(type of thesis or dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Pamphlets and Brochures

For pamphlets/brochures, provide as much information as needed for the reader to locate the original source of the material. Elements should include (if available):
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of pamphlet [Pamphlet]. Location: Publisher.

Legal Materials

Legislation: Include the "short title" of the Act (as specified in Section 1 of the Act), and the relevant jurisdictional notation.
See AGLC Legislation and Quasi-Legislative Materials (Hansard, Bills etc.) .
Cases: For more information on Case citation elements, see AGLC Cases.


Papers at conferences, symposia, meetings and seminars may be published in different formats and the reference should follow the style for the format used.
Give the month of the conference as well as the year.
If the proceedings are published as a separate book, use the style for a chapter in a book. If the proceedings are published annually as a journal, use the style for periodical articles (this can usually be recognised by the use of a volume number for each annual issue).
If the paper has not been published (e.g. a handout collected at the conference), treat it as an unpublished work giving the name and location of the conference in a description at the end of the reference. 

ERIC Documents

The ERIC database includes both journal articles and documents. Journal articles from ERIC are referenced in the same way as other journal articles (see above).
An ERIC document should be cited in the same format as an electronic book. However, the ERIC database and ED number should be quoted.

Health Resources

BMJ Best Practice: The date in brackets is the date that the page was last updated.

Cochrane Systematic Reviews: Articles may be published in database form, but they function like an online journal: Numbered issues are published 12 times a year, and each article has its own DOI.

eTG Complete

JBI Connect: All JBI publications  are cited in a conventional manner with originating authors. The only exception is the “Best Practice" series that is cited as being authored by The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Use the URL for all retrieval statements.

UptoDate: Cite the UpToDate topic as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by T.W. Post, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. There are no page numbers to cite. The publication year for any topic should be the current year.

MIMS (Monthly Index of Medical Specialties) drug information.

DSM-V: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.

AMH: Australian Medicines Handbook

Secondary Sources

Use secondary sources sparingly (for example, if a book is out of print or unavailable). Always try to locate the original source first.

University Course Readings Book/Workbook

University course readers can include lab manuals, workbooks, and collections of articles. Check to see if the course reader is written entirely by the same author(s) or if it is a collection of articles by different authors, edited by someone else. See below for examples.


Statistics are present in a variety of documents, so consider the mode of the document (i.e. website, pdf document, book) and follow the applicable style rules. Here are some examples on citing other commonly found sources of statistics including data sets and Australian Bureau of Statistics documents.