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Main Elements

Overview: Religious and Classical Works are cited differently from most other forms of material. These items are often thousands of years old, have been published multiple times and in many languages, and are well known throughout the world. Therefore, you only need to cite these items within the text of your essay, unless you are using a translated copy.

Translations are common with classical Greek or Roman texts, and you will usually be able to find translation details on the title page or cover. Because translations can vary, you should include the information for the specific item you are using in your reference list.


Items such as the Bible do not require an author, but you need to specify which version you are using in brackets the first time you refer to the Bible in text


Bible or Qur'an: Always use the chapter and verse, rather than page numbers. If this is the first reference to the Bible in your essay, include the version as well.


In your reference list, place the translator's name in brackets after the title, along with the abbreviation Trans. Use the date of the translated work for publication year and add the date of the original work in brackets at the end of the reference.

Modern edition of classical work: Include both the year of original publication and the year of translation in the in text reference.