The following list contains examples of references formatted for journal articles.
The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked to so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.
Multiple authors of the same work are listed in the order in which they appear with the source. Do not change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.
In a first footnote, the authors' names are given in normal order (i.e. first name first).
In a short form footnote, only the surnames are given.
In a bibliography, only the first author's name is inverted (i.e. surname first). Additional authors' names follow in normal order.
In a first footnote, only the name of the first author is included, followed by et al.
In a short form footnote, only include the first author's surname followed by et al.
In a bibliography, list all the authors. (For more than ten authors, list the first seven then et al.)
Word order and punctuation are the same as for the rule for two or three authors.
Authors’ names are normally given as they appear with the source. If an author uses his or her given name in one work and initials in another, use preferably the full name when citing both, for consistency.
Omit any degrees and affiliations following names.
Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as King or Saint are omitted.
Should be capitalised headline-style and enclosed in quotation marks.
Should be italicised and capitalised headline-style.
Should be italicised, capitalised headline-style, and if the title contains The, please omit.
In some cases, a newspaper will need to be identified by nation. Add this information, in parentheses and roman type, after the italicised title of the newspaper, e.g. Guardian (Australian edition).
The year should appear in parentheses after the volume and issue number, and may be preceded by an exact date, a month, or a season.
e.g. ... 17, no. 2 (April 2013).
When a journal uses an issue number and no volume number, a comma should follow the journal title.
Even if numbered by volume and issue, magazines are usually cited by date only and the date is not enclosed in parentheses.
Page numbers, if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (e.g. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the paragraph number or section heading.
In footnote citations: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: the full article's page range should be cited.
DOIs are often listed in the form of “DOI:” Append this DOI to https://doi.org/ to form a URL (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1086/679716).
In the absence of a DOI, look for a stable/persistent URL, often available with the electronic resource (e.g. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23356366). Sometimes a suitable URL will not be available and in such cases, list the name of the database rather than the URL.