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Religious & Classical Works

The following list contains examples of references formatted for religious and classical materials. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) offers some guidelines for referencing Biblical and Scriptural materials, but if significant scholarship in Theology is being conducted, CMOS recommends the use of The SBL Handbook of Style.

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked to so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Click on the links below to learn more about:
Footnote Style Examples  | Biblical Abbreviations  |  Explanatory Notes

Footnote & Bibliography Examples

Bible: 10.44 & 14.239

In running text, books of the Bible are written in full:

... According to Genesis 1:27, God created man in his own image.

Abbreviations are appropriate within the text in parentheses, or where there are many references to list without parentheses:

... There are several instances where bread is used in a figurative context (Isa 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10)...

... Bread is used in a figurative context in Isa 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10...

Abbreviations are are also used in footnotes:

5.   Isa 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10.

Parenthetical or footnote references to the Bible should include book, chapter, and verse (never a page number).

Bibliography entries are not required.

See below for Biblical abbreviations


Other sacred texts: 14.241

Sacred works of other religious traditions can be treated in a similar way to the Bible and should be cited in the running text and footnotes, but not in the bibliography.

...can be compared to the Qur'an verse (19:17-21) where it mentions that Mary gave birth to Jesus.

6. Qur'an 19:17-21.


Classics - Ancient: 14.242 & 14.243
Classics - Modern editions: 14.251 & 14.246
Conciliar documents - Second Vatican Council
Conciliar documents - Council of Trent
Papal documents
Summa Theologiae
Works by saints: 14.83

Explanatory Notes


Biblical abbreviations: OT 10.45 NT 10.47

Use the shorter form abbreviations (without full stops) for references to books of the Old and New Testament .


Versions of the Bible: 14.240

Identify which version is being referred to in your paper in the first footnote, e.g.

           6. 2 Kings 11:8 (New Revised Standard Version).


Authors known by a given name: 14.83

Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as "King" or "Saint" or place identifiers such as "of Hippo" or "of England" are omitted.


Titles of classical works14.247

Titles of classical works and collections are italicised whether given in full or abbreviated (see 14.244).

Latin and transliterated Greek titles are capitalised sentence-style.