Research data is any documentation, in any format, of findings, observations or outcomes created through the research process. This definition is broad by necessity - research activity in each different field and discipline area has its own ways of collecting and using data; each research question will require different data; and each research project will create different forms of data.
Your data could be:
Whatever form your data takes, it is important to understand that proper handling will improve your impact and strengthen the validity of your research results.
Since 2015, the acronym FAIR has been used to describe qualities that research data can have which maximises use and reuse. Notre Dame's Policy: Research Data Management acknowledges and endorses these principles.
This acronym stands for:
F - Findable: Data can be more findable by: properly describing what the data is; putting it in a permanent and easily searchable place; and making it easy for humans and computers to search for it.
A - Accessible: Data can be more accessible by: using non-proprietary, standardised and automated methods to supply the data to those who want or need it; letting others know how they can get the data; and letting others know if the data is no longer available.
I - Interoperable: Data can be more interoperable by: storing and providing the data in widely-used and accessible file formats; describing the data using standard terms (vocabularies) that are relevant and widely known; and describing if it relates to other data and what exactly that relationship is.
R - Reusable: Data can be more reusable by: making it clear how the data was collected or if there are validity concerns; making any conditions of reuse clear in license readable to humans and machines; and meeting the standards used within the relevant research community.
If your research involves handling, managing or analysing Indigenous data then you should consider applying the CARE principles for Indigenous Data Governance.
The CARE Principles describe how data should be treated to ensure that there is Indigenous governance over the data and that its use is respected. ‘CARE’ is the acronym for:
Data ownership refers to the intellectual property rights over the data created through research, and may also define ongoing roles around data management and use. Ownership of research is a complex issue that may involve the principal investigator, the sponsoring institution, the funding agency, and any participating human subjects. Clarifying data ownership and intellectual property rights is an important part of data management as this will ultimately decide who has control and rights over the data and can influence how the research data is managed, how it can be reused in the future and who has responsibility for these issues.
Due to complications around research funding agreements, collaborative projects, ethical guidelines, shared datasets and institutional policies, data ownership can be confusing. If there are no formal agreements or guidelines, you should clarify the ownership of the data and the implications as soon as possible and keep this information in writing, the same way you would with an authorship agreement. These discussions could include parties such as:
In general, Notre Dame students retain ownership of their data, as outlined in the Policy: Intellectual Property.
Notre Dame research staff should refer to the Policy: Intellectual Property and the Policy: Research Data Management.
Any researcher conducting research in collaboration with an organisation external to Notre Dame should obtain a written agreement outlining the ownership of the research data. This agreement may also include details around particular storage and access requirements and who is responsible for meeting those requirements.
The following policy and procedure documents identify and outline the various roles and responsibilities around Research Data Management at Notre Dame and in Australia.