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Notre Dame 5 Star University
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Academic Integrity

What should I consider?

A reference, or citation, is required when you summarise or refer to ideas or data obtained from another person or source, or when you quote another source word for word (direct quotation). You must reference any ideas or data you have used which are not your own.


Information of a general nature such as facts which are common knowledge (e.g. the Prime Minister is the leader of government in Australia) do not need to be referenced.

It is essential to reference all types of sources whether they are in print or electronic format (eg websites, blogs, online videos) since they are all forms of information generated by an individual or an organisation, and need to be acknowledged for ethical and legal reasons.

More information about Australian and International Copyright can be found via the following links: