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AGLC

Main elements

Explanatory notes

Rule 1: General rules

This includes- footnotes, initial and subsequent references, quotations, punctuation, grammar and spelling.

Rule 1.1.6-1.1.7: Pinpoint references

Pinpoint references may include

  • Specific pages, or paragraph, footnote or other section of a source.

Rules 1.4.1-1.4.3: Subsequent references and ibid

Subsequent references & short title

  • Use Ibid for footnotes immediately following an initial case footnote unless there are multiple sources in the preceding footnote.

Rule 1.4.4: Short titles

  • The first reference to a source in the text should always provide the full title before introducing the short title. The first citation of a source in a footnote should always be given in full, but subsequent footnotes may use the short title.
  • When introducing the short title within a footnote, the short title should be provided at the end of the initial citation after any pinpoints or parenthetical clauses (Rule 1.5.7) and should not be repeated in each subsequent citation.

Rule 2.1.14: Shortened and popular case names and subsequent references

Subsequent footnotes not immediately following the first citation of a case, should use the short title and refer back to the initial case footnote (n...) (see full explanation in AGLC4).
(Note: previous editions of AGLC did not permit subsequent references to cases.).

Rule 2.2.2: Law Report series

Authorised version to be used in preference to other case citations.

Rule 2.2.7: Parallel citations

Parallel citations should not be used except for UK cases (Rule 24).

 

Reported cases

Parties/Case Name (Year) Volume Number +Series Abbreviation + Starting page.

Parties names Rule 2

  • Acceptable abbreviations of parties names are detailed in rule 2.1.
  • Rule 2.1–2.1.6: deals exhaustively with the requirement for citing party names including business names, states names, the Crown, government departments and ministers.
  • Rule 2.1.1: Where parties to a case are individuals, given names and initials should be omitted.
  • Rule 2.1.1: Where there are many parties to the case, only the first named plaintiff and defendant should be included in the citation and the abbreviations & Anor and & Ors should not be used and
  • Rule 2.18–2.1.10: details how cases including Re, Ex parte, and ex rel in the party names should be cited.

Dates and brackets

  • Use round brackets ( ) when there is a unique volume number or
  • Use square brackets [ ] when citing unreported cases with medium neutral court identifiers or when the report series does not have a unique volume number.

Series abbreviations

  • Use the designated series abbreviations or court identifiers without full stops (Rule 1.6.1).

Page numbers

  • Starting page numbers.
  • Pinpoint page numbers for quotes and references.

For more information read

  • Part I which outlines the conventions used across all legal sources.
  • Part II, Rule 2: Domestic Sources- Cases.
  • Part IV, Rule 9 International Sources - Cases; and
  • Part V, Foreign Domestic Materials - rules for individual countries.

Medium neutral case

Parties/Case Name [Year] Unique Court Identifier + Judgment Number.

Parties names Rule 2:

  • Acceptable abbreviations of parties names are detailed in Rule 2.1.
  • Rule 2.1–2.1.6: Deals exhaustively with the requirement for citing party names including business names, states names, the Crown, government  departments and ministers.
  • Rule 2.1.1: Where parties to a case are individuals, given names and initials should be omitted.
  • Rule 2.1.1: Where there are many parties to the case, only the first named plaintiff and defendant should be included in the citation and the abbreviations & Anor and & Ors should not be used and
  • Rule 2.18–2.1.10: Details how cases including Re, Ex parte, and ex rel in the party names should be cited.

Court identifiers

  • Court identifiers with out any full stops (Rule 1.6.1).

Judgment number

  • Number given to each case as it is handed down.

Paragraph numbers

  • Only used for pinpoint references.

Rule 2.3.2: 

  • Older unreported decisions without a medium neutral citation may require alternative citation formats. 
  • However for court purposes consult Practice Directions of the relevant court.

Medium neutral

AGLC does not discriminate or identify a documents' format (medium or media).
In relation to cases medium neutral cases include references to paragraph numbers not to page numbers.  The paragraph number remains the same no matter what format (print or online) you use or where you found the case.

Rule 2.2.7: Parallel citations 
Should not be used except for UK reports see Rule 24.

  1. ​Authorised (See authorised reports).
  2. General unauthorised.
  3. Subject specific unauthorised.
  4. Unreported or  medium neutral.

Rule 1.3: Always attempt to read the original source when using a quote or argument cited in another author’s work. Sometimes, this is not possible, particularly at undergraduate level.

In this case, use either quoting, quoted in, citing or cited in and discussed, discussed in as outlined in the rules in AGLC4 Rule 1.3.
These phrases should be proceeded by a coma.
Only cite the source that you have accessed in the bibliography, not the secondary citation.

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Case citation examples

Rule 2.2.1: Year and volume
Volumes of law report series are organised either by year or by volume number
Where the volumes are organised by volume number, the year in which the decision was handed down (often, but not necessarily, the year in which the case was reported) should appear in parentheses '( )'.


First footnote
56. R v Lester (2008) 190 A Crim R 468.

Subsequent footnotes

57. Ibid 469.
58. Sent v Andrews (2002) 6 VR 317.
Not:...(2002-03) 6 VR 317.
59. King v King [1974] Qd R 253.
60. Rowe v McCartney [1976] 2 NSWLR 72.

Bibliography
R v Lester (2008) 190 A Crim R 468
Sent v Andrews (2002) 6 VR 317 
King v King [1974] Qd R 253
Rowe v McCartney [1976] 2 NSWLR 72

Rules 2.1.14 & 1.4.4:
If the parties names are fully cited in text you do not need to include the parties in the footnotes.
If a case is cited several times you should include the short title in your initial reference.
Citations immediately following the first can use Ibid, but later citations must include the short title and citation.


In-text
In Williams v Commonwealth 3 the High Court discussed the meaning of ‘benefits to students’ in the context of services provided by….

 First footnote
 3. (2014) 88 ALJR 701, 710 [38].

Subsequent footnotes
4. Ibid 711 [45].

Bibliography
Williams v Commonwealth 88 ALJR 701
Williams v Commonwealth 88 ALJR 711

Rule 2.3.1: Decisions with a medium neutral citation

Previous editions of AGLC required a full date as part of the citation. This is no longer required.


First footnote
1. Quarmby v Keating [2009] TASCC 80, [11].

Subsequent footnotes

2. Ibid 1 20.

3. Catharine MacMillan, Mistakes in Contract Law (Hart Publishing, 2010) 9.

Bibliography

Quamby v Keating [2009] TASCC 80
MacMillan, Catharine, Mistakes in Contract Law (Hart Publishing, 2010)
 

Rule 2.3.2: Decisions without a medium neutral citation

Previous editions of AGLC required the word 'unreported' within the citation. This is no longer required. 
Older unreported judgments are sometimes compiled by courts into bound volumes.
Even when citing an unreported case from such a volume, there is no need to refer to the volume or to include a starting page.
In accordance with Rule 2.2.2, a case should generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported.


First footnote
2. Barton v Chibber (Supreme Court of Victoria, Hampel J. 29 June 1989) 3.

Bibliography
Barton v Chibber (Supreme Court of Victoria, Hampel J, 29 June 1989) 3

Rule 2.7.1: Transcripts of proceedings
Transcripts of proceedings should be cited as follows:
Transcript of Proceedings, Case Name (Court, Proceeding Number, Judicial Officer(s), Full Date of Proceedings) Pinpoint
Proceeding number should be included only if on transcript.
Names of all judicial officers hearing the matter should be included after the proceeding number.


First footnote
116. Transcript  of Proceedings, North East Solution Pty Ltd V Masters Home Improvement Australia Pty Ltd (Supreme Court of Victoria, Croft J, 18 May 2015) 31 (PJ Bick QC).

Bibliography
Transcript  of Proceedings, North East Solution Pty Ltd V Masters Home Improvement Australia Pty Ltd (Supreme Court of Victoria, Croft J, 18 May 2015)


Canada

Rule 15:

Canadian cases should be sited in accordance with Chapter 2.


First footnote

1.
R v Sharpe [2001] 1 SCR 45.


Bibliography
R v Sharpe [2001] 1 SCR 45

 

New Zealand

Rule 21:

New Zealand cases should be sited in accordance with Chapter 2.


First footnote
1. Haylock v Pateck [2009] 1 NZLR 351.

Bibliography
Haylock v Pateck [2009] 1 NZLR 351

 

United Kingdom

Rule 24:

United Kingdom cases should be sited in accordance with Chapter 2.
'Public Limited Company' should be abbreviated  'plc' in parties' names.


First footnote
1. CAS (Nominees) Ltd v Nottingham Forest plc [2001] 1 ALL ER 954.

Bibliography
CAS (Nominees) Ltd v Nottingham Forest plc [2001] 1 ALL ER 954
 

United States of America

 Rule 25:

United States cases should be cited Parties' Names, Volume Report Series and Series Number Starting Page, Pinpoint Jurisdiction and Court Name Year.
Parties' names should adhere to rule 2.1. However they should be followed by a (non-italic) coma.
Commas within company names before 'Inc', 'Corp' and other words indicating incorporation should omitted.


First footnote
1. Roper v Simmons, 543 US 551, 567 (2005).
2. Zapatha v Dairy Mart Inc, 381 Mass 284,289 (Mass,1980). 
Not: Zapatha v Dairy Mart, Inc,...

Bibliography
Roper v Simmons, 543 US 551, 567 (2005).
Zapatha v Dairy Mart Inc, 381 Mass 284,289.


 International Court of Justice Reported Decisions

Rule 10.2:

Case Name (Nations) (Phase [Year] Report Series and Series Letters, Starting Page and Case Number, Pinpoint.


First footnote
1. Maritime Dispute (Peru v Chile) (Judgment) [2014] ICJ Rep 3.

Bibliography

Maritime Dispute (Peru v Chile) (Judgment) [2014] ICJ Rep 3.

International Court of Justice Unreported Materials

Rule 10.4.1:

Case Name (Nations) (Phase) (International Court of Justice, General List No Number, Full Date [Pinpoint].


First footnote
30. Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters ( Djibouti v France) (Judgment) (International Court of Justice, General List No 136, 4 June 2008).

Bibliography
Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters ( Djibouti v France) (Judgment) (International Court of Justice, General List No 136, 4 June 2008).

Rule 12: International Criminal Tribunals and Courts
See AGLC Page 176.

Rule 14: Supranational Materials
See AGLC Page 193

Rule 14.2: European Union Materials
See AGLC Page 194

Rule 14.2.2: Constitutive treaties of the European Union
See AGLC Page 196

Rule 14.2.3: Courts of the European Union
See AGLC Page 199

Rule 14.3.1: Basic Documents of the Council of Europe
See AGLC Page 201

Rule 14.3.2: European Court of Human Rights
See AGLC Page 202

Rule 14.3.3: European Commission on Human Rights
See AGLC Page 204

Rule 14.4: Other Supranational Courts and Tribunals
See AGLC Page 205

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