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AMA Referencing (Vancouver)

Books & eBooks

Book reference example

AMA Manual cover[3.12; 3.12.2]

Use this format if:

  • You are citing a book in which there is only one set of authors for the whole book (see below for citing different authors given in individual book chapters).
  • You are citing an edited book as a complete work - not the work of a particular chapter by a particular author.

Minimum information needed (in bold):

  • Author(s) or editor(s) (if editors, include ed. or eds.). If you have more than six authors/editors, list only the first three followed by “et al”
  • Book title (in italics, in Title Case)
  • Volume number and title (if there is more than one volume)
  • Edition number (if it is not the first edition)
  • Publisher's name
  • Latest copyright year

Important notes:

  • If the the name(s) of  translator(s) is given, this is also included in the author part of the reference.
  • The full name of the publisher should be given as shown on the title page of the book. Omit any punctuation after abbreviations.
  • The place of publication is no longer required. 

 

Book - print

Reference list

  1. Bryant BJ, Knights KM, Darroch S, Rowland A. Pharmacology for Health Professionals. 5th ed. Pharmaceutical Press; 2019.
  2. Haber P, Day C, Farrell MP. Addiction Medicine: Principles and Practice. IP Communications; 2015.
  3. McNamara P. The Neuroscience of Sleep and Dreams. Cambridge University Press; 2019.


eBook

eBook reference

AMA Manual cover[3.12; 3.12.2]

Use this format if:

  • You are citing a book that is available in its entirety online.
  • You are citing an edited eBook as a complete work - not the work of a particular chapter by a particular author.

Minimum information needed (in bold):

  • Author(s) or editor(s) (if editors, include ed. or eds.)
  • Book title (in italics, in Title Case)
  • Volume number and title (if there is more than one volume)
  • Edition number (if it is not the first edition)
  • Publisher's name
  • Latest copyright year
  • DOI or URL
  • Accessed date (only used in conjunction with URL. Dates follow the American pattern of Month-Day-Year.)

Important notes:

  • If the the name(s) of  translator(s) is given, this is also included in the author part of the reference.
  • The full name of the publisher should be given as shown on the title page of the book. Omit any punctuation after abbreviations.
  • The place of publication is no longer required. 

 

eBooks

Reference list

  1. Roberts F, MacDuff E, eds. Pathology Illustrated. 8th ed. 2018. Accessed July 7, 2020. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/unda/reader.action?docID=5434828
  2. Daniel R, Harrop CM, eds. Medical Management of Neurosurgical Patients. Oxford University Press; 2019. doi:10.1093/med/9780190913779.001.0001


Book chapter

AMA Manual cover[3.12.4]

Use this format if:

  • Each chapter in the book was written by different authors (the book has editors responsible for the work as a whole), and you are using information that is specific to the individual chapters.
  • Cite each chapter you use separately.

Minimum information needed (in bold):

  • Author(s)
  • Chapter Title (not in italics, in sentence case)
  • Editor(s)
  • Book title (in italics, in Title Case)
  • Volume number and title (if there is more than one volume)
  • Edition number (if it is not the first edition)
  • Publisher's name
  • Latest copyright year
  • Inclusive page numbers
  • DOI or URL (if online)
  •  Accessed date (only used in conjunction with URL. Dates follow the American pattern of Month-Day-Year.)

Important notes:

  • If the the name(s) of  translator(s) are given, this is also included in the author part of the reference.
  • The full name of the publisher should be given as shown on the title page of the book. Omit any punctuation after abbreviations.
  • The place of publication is no longer required. 
  • If a book uses separate pagination for each chapter, follow the style used in the book.
  • The chapter number may be used instead if the author does not provide the page range, or if page numbers are unavailable because it is an audio book.

Chapter in an edited book & eBook

Reference list

  1. Pepi M, Tamborini G. Three-dimensional echocardiography. In: Sarti A, Lorini L, eds. Textbook of Echocardiography for Intensivists and Emergency Physicians. Springer; 2019:57-70. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-99891-6
  2. Ferguson JS. Skin and photosensitivity. In: Morris-Jones R, ed. ABC of Dermatology. 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2019:187-209. Accessed July 3, 2020. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/unda/reader.action?docID=5808809&ppg=1
  3. Bennett CM. Epidemiology. In: Fleming ML, Parker E, Correa-Velez I, eds. Introduction to Public Health. 4th ed. Elsevier Australia; 2019:28-54
  4. Rudolph KD, Flynn M. Depression in adolescents. In: Gottlib IH, Hammen CL, eds. Handbook of Depression. 3rd ed. Guilford Press; 2014:391-409.
  5. Harper RD. Preface. In: The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. University of Chicago Press; 2010:xi-xii.

AMA Manual cover[3.7]

  • Six authors/editors or less - include the names of all authors/editors.
  • More than six authors/editors - include the first three names, then shorten with et al.

Reference list

  1. Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks W, et al, eds. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Saunders; 2014.

AMA Manual cover[3.11.10]

When you are using information that was originally published in a source you have not read (e.g. quotes, statistics or data), but was cited in a source you have read, this is called secondary citations or secondary referencing. Generally speaking, you should cite the work you have in front of you. Secondary citations should be used sparingly, if at all. The only reason to use a secondary citation is if you cannot get access to the original. Ideally, you should consider using another source for your information. If the work you have read is synthesising information from various sources, for example, a systematic review and you are paraphrasing their work, then you only need to cite the work you have read.

If it is unavoidable, give the full citation details for both sources, using "Cited by:" (for information/data) or "Quoted by:" (for quotes) to join them.


Example scenario

You have been reading a journal article by Winchester, which gives a quote by Smith and Wesson, and you want to use that quote. In your reference list, cite: Smith and Wesson (complete reference). Quoted by: Winchester (complete reference).

In-text

Smith and Wesson1(p6) noted the "complete irrelevance of this kind of data" in advanced discussions of this nature.

Reference list

  1. Smith J, Wesson A. Information that could lead to confusion.  Am J Adv Discuss. 1982;14(6):12-24. Quoted by: Winchester B. Reflections on information usage. Arch Aust Discuss. 2014;45(4):45-57.