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AMA Referencing (Vancouver)

Webpages and online documents

Webpages and online documents

 

AMA Manual cover[3.15.3]

Use this format for:

  • General webpages. Different formatting rules apply for online books, online journals, video/audio and social media - refer to these specific sections for guidance..

Minimum information needed (in bold):

  • Author(s) (or name of the group responsile for the content). If you have more than six authors, list only the first three followed by “et al”.
  • Title of page or object (or if not available the name of the organisation responsible for the site - in sentence case)
  • Name of the website (if different from the page - in Title Case)
  • Date published (at least year, if available) AND/OR Updated date (if different to published date - at least year, if available)
  • Accessed date
  • URL 

Important notes:

  • If the name of the website and the organisation are the same, omit the author element of the citation.

 

Reference list

  1. Anaphylaxis. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. Updated April, 2019. Accessed July 3, 2020. https://www.allergy.org.au/patients/about-allergy/anaphylaxis
  2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Protection of human subjects. 45 CFR §46. Revised July 19, 2018. Accessed June 23, 2019. https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/regulations/revised-common-rule-regulatory-text/index.html

Use this format for:

  • Standalone documents found online in the .pdf file format.

Important notes:

  • If the PDF has an ISBN, then the work is technically a book, not a web page.

Reference list

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Million Hearts: meaningful progress 2012-2016. Published May 2017. Accessed September 7, 2020. https://millionhearts.hhs.gov/files/MH-meaningful-progress.pdf
  2. Johnson DL, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors Among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2010. Monitoring the Future. NIH publication 10-7586. June 2010. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/hiv-aids_2010.pdf
  3. World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control: recovery plans and implementation: Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone inter-country meeting: July 20-22, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204370/1/WHO_HIS_SDS_2015.23_eng.pdf

Important notes:

  • When powerpoint or lecture slides are available online to anyone, use the site name, followed by the URL. If the slides come from a learning management system (e.g. Blackboard) and the audience you are writing for has access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its main URL. If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides, cite them as a personal communication. See 3.13.9 for 'meeting presentations and other unpublished material' and 3.13.10 'personal communication' in the AMA Manual of Style for further information.

Reference list

  1. Davies S. The Current State of Consumer Digital Health [slides]. Published December 20, 2015. Accessed September 9, 2020. https://www.slideshare.net/3wpr/the-current-state-of-consumer-digital-health
  2.  Scholtens AM, Swart LE, Verberne HJ, Budde RPJ, Lam MGEH. Dual-time-point FDG PET/CT imaging in prosthetic heart valve endocarditis [supplementary slides]. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 2018;25(6):1960-7. https://doi-org.ipacez.nd.edu.au/10.1007/s12350-017-0902-3

Reference list

  1. Australian Government Department of Health. Insect bites and stings. Health Direct. Updated June, 2018. Accessed June 18, 2020. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/insect-bites-and-stings
  2. Ebola recommendations for organizations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 2, 2019. Updated November 7, 2019. Accessed June 30, 2020. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/recs-organizations-sending-workers-ebola

Reference list

  1. Silburn K, Reich H, Anderson I, eds. A Global Snapshot of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Health: The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Collaboration. Lowitja Institute; 2016. Accessed September 9, 2020. https://www.lowitja.org.au/content/Document/Lowitja-Publishing/Lancet_Lowitja_rprt_0.pdf
  2. World Medical Association. Declaration on alcohol. Updated October 2015. Accessed March 3, 2016. https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-on-alcohol/
  3. Carpenter CS, McClellan CB, Rees DI. Economic conditions, illicit drug use, and substance use disorders in the United States. National Bureau of Economic Research working paper 22051. February 2016. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.nber.org/papers/w22051

Reference list

  1. Physical therapy guide to balance problems. APTA ChoosePT Guide. February 4, 2015. Accessed March 7, 2020. https://www.choosept.com/symptomsconditionsdetail/physical-therapy-guide-to-balance-problems
  2. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Older Americans 2012: key indicators of well-being. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.agingstats.gov

Social media

Social media

AMA Manual cover[3.15.4]

Use this format for:.

  • Media including: Facebook, Twitter, and blogs. YouTube video references should follow examples on Video & Audio page.

Minimum information needed (in bold):

  • Author(s) (or organisation responsible for the site)
  • Title of page or post (if no titles are available, use the first few words of the post)
  • Date published (Month, Day, Year) AND/OR Updated date (if different to published date - Month, Day, Year)
  • Accessed date (Month, Day, Year)
  • URL (of specific post)

Important notes:

  • The examples in this section differ from those of the Manual in order to reference more specific social media posts.
  • Always endeavour to find an author for a social media output - there should be an organisation or company responsible for the site.
  • Check to make sure any URLs provided are still valid, functioning links as these often change over time. 

Important notes:

  •   As there are no titles for Facebook posts, provide part of the post as the title (e.g. first sentence). 

Reference list

  1.  CDC Facebook page. DYK what to do if someone in your house has COVID-19? October 9, 2020. Accessed October 12, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/CDC/photos/a.184668026025/10158482220471026

  2. Australian Medical Association Facebook page. The AMA supports all Australians who want to quit smoking. September 24, 2020 Accessed October 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/AustralianMedicalAssociation/posts/3359481794112386

Important notes:

  •   As there are no titles in Twitter, provide part of the post as the title (e.g. first sentence). 

Reference list

  1. @AMAManual. Double negatives can be used to express a positive, but this yields a weaker affirmative than the simpler positive and may be confusing.  March 7, 2019. Accessed March 10, 2019. https://twitter.com/AMAManual/status/1103678998327017483
  2. @AMAManual. Listen to the JAMA podcast on Parkinson disease for an explanation of why AMA style does not use the 's (possessive eponym).  Posted February 11, 2020. Accessed February 15, 2020. https://twitter.com/AMAManual/status/1227290871273525249

 

Please see Video & Audio page for more information. 

Reference list

  1. Gray T. Advice after mischief is like medicine after death. AMA Style Insider blog. February 11, 2019. Accessed March 10, 2019. https://amastyleinsider.com/2019/02/11/advice-after-mischief-is-like-medicine-after-death/

Missing information

Always try to find an author for a web site - there should be an organisation or company responsible for the site. If you cannot find an author or organisation responsible for the page, begin the reference with the title of the page.

 

You should always try to find a date for your sources. Most reliable sources of information will have a date - either a date for when the source was published, or a date for when it was last updated.

If you genuinely cannot find a date, and you must cite this work, use date unknown in place of the year.