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AMA Referencing (Vancouver)


AMA Style is a variation of the Vancouver system devised by the American Medical Association (AMA). The University supports the use of the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style, which is used in the School of Medicine at Notre Dame.

AMA is an author-number style, which means a number is placed in the text to correspond to the author name(s) in the reference list, which are listed numerically in order of appearance.

Please see examples and detailed instructions throughout this guide, noting quick reference materials below in the sample reference list, and on the Quick Reference Guide page.

AMA Manual coverNote for postgraduates, researchers, and academic staff: This guide has been adapted from the official online AMA Manual of Style 11th edition. Some local interpretations have been created in order to suit the needs of students undertaking coursework. If you are planning to publish your material, the Library recommends consulting the Manual for more detailed instructions, particularly if reproducing copyrighted works.


AMA referencing tutorial

Tools, guides, and classes

The University Library provides students with free access to EndNote and RefWorks citation management software. Both have the same purpose: to make the management and formatting of references more streamlined. It is worth looking at both tools to determine which one could be right for you, depending on how you like to work. 

  • RefWorks is a fully cloud-based tool, meaning that there is no requirement to install or upgrade the software and users have access to the full features of the software online.
  • EndNote requires installation on one of your devices in order for you to access the full features of the software.

Read more about the difference between EndNote and RefWorks.

The "Vancouver" style in EndNote is based on the Uniform Requirements - one of the most commonly used versions of Vancouver. However, this style has some variations and does not use superscript numbers in text. If you have been asked to use "Vancouver" or "Uniform" for a publication, find the style for the journal in which you wish to publish (e.g. Lancet, BMJ, PLoS). You may have to download the style you want.
JAMA is available as an output style choice in EndNote, however this is currently based on the 10th edition, not the current 11th, and elements of the style differ from AMA 11th.

EndNote does not currently have AMA 11th available as a default style. Follow the instructions in our EndNote guide to download and install this style to your EndNote library.

Journals following AMA style

There are several medical journals that follow the AMA referencing style. You can refer to them to observe the formatting of in-text references and reference lists. Here are some examples: