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Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Main elements - bibliography

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked across many of the examples and notes below so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Example of Chicago citation of a book in a bibliography.

Authors (or editors)

[14.75]

Book

First footnote
6. Charles Hornsby, Kenya: A History Since Independence (London: I. B. Tauris, 2013), 221.

Subsequent footnotes
8. Hornsby, Kenya, 225.

Bibliography

Hornsby, Charles. Kenya: A History Since Independence. London: I. B. Tauris, 2013.

 

eBook

First footnote
9. Michael Cadden, Telling Children's Stories (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2011), 4, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1dfnsch.

Subsequent footnotes
11. Cadden, Telling Children's Stories, 5.

Bibliography

Cadden, Michael. Telling Children's Stories: Narrative Theory and Children's Literature. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2011. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1dfnsch.

Name order - two or three authors: [14.76] Multiple authors of the same work are listed in the order in which they appear with the source. Do not change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.

In a first footnote, the authors' names are given in normal order (i.e. first name first).
In a short form footnote, only the surnames are given.
In a bibliography, only the first author's name is inverted (i.e. surname first). Additional authors' names follow in normal order.

 

Book

First footnote
2. Narelle Miragliotta, Wayne Errington, and Nicholas Barry, The Australian Political System in Action, 2nd ed. (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2013), 252.

Subsequent footnotes
4. Miragliotta, Errington, and Barry, Australian Political System, 253.

Bibliography

Miragliotta, Narelle, Wayne Errington, and Nicholas Barry. The Australian Political System in Action. 2nd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2013.

 

eBook

First footnote
3. Jonathan Todres and Sarah Higinbotham, Human Rights in Children's Literature: Imagination and the Narrative of Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), chap. 2, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190213343.001.0001.

Subsequent footnotes
5. Todres and Higinbotham, Human Rights in Children's Literature, chap. 2.

Bibliography

Todres, Jonathan, and Sarah Higinbotham. Human Rights in Children's Literature: Imagination and the Narrative of Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190213343.001.0001.

Four to ten authors: [14.76] Word order and punctuation are the same as for the rule for two or three authors.

In a first footnote, only the name of the first author is included, followed by et al.
In a short form footnote, only include the first author's surname followed by et al.
In a bibliography, list all the authors with only the first author's name inverted. (For more than ten authors, list the first seven then et al.)

 

Book

First footnote
4. Bret Kloos et al., Community Psychology: Linking Individuals and Communities, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2012), 432.

Subsequent footnotes
7. Kloos et al., Community Psychology, 455.

Bibliography

Kloos, Bret, Jean Hill, Elizabeth Thomas, Abraham Wandersman, Maurice J. Elias, and James H. Dalton. Community Psychology: Linking Individuals and Communities. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2012.

 

eBook

First footnote
2. Brian McNair et al., Politics, Media and Democracy in Australia: Public and Producer Perceptions of the Political Public Sphere (London: Routledge, 2017), chap. 1, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315771311.

Subsequent footnotes
8. McNair et al., Politics, Media and Democracy in Australia, chap. 1.


Bibliography

McNair, Brian, Terry Flew, Stephen Harrington, and Adam Swift. Politics, Media and Democracy in Australia: Public and Producer Perceptions of the Political Public Sphere. London: Routledge, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315771311.

Editions other than the first: [14.113] When an edition other than the first is cited, the number, or description, of the edition follows the title.

 

Book

First footnote
4. Jacques P. Thiroux and Keith W. Krasemann, Ethics: Theory and Practice, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007), 501.

Subsequent footnotes
9. Thiroux and Krasemann, Ethics: Theory and Practice, 503.

Bibliography

Thiroux, Jacques P., and Keith W. Krasemann. Ethics: Theory and Practice. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007.

 

eBook

First footnote
1. Colin Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. (Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2010), 8, Proquest Ebook Central.

Subsequent footnotes
3. Neville, Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 9.

Bibliography

Neville, Colin. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd ed. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2010. Proquest Ebook Central.

[14.103]

First footnote
9. Elaine Wainwright, Luiz C. Susin, and Felix Wilfred, eds., Eco-Theology (London: SCM Press, 2009), 36.

Subsequent footnotes
11. Wainwright, Susin, and Wilfred, Eco-Theology, 37.

Bibliography

Wainwright, Elaine, Luiz C. Susin, and Felix Wilfred, eds. Eco-Theology. London: SCM Press, 2009.

[14.107]

Book

First footnote
5. John Rawls, “Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play,” in Civil Disobedience and Violence, ed. Jeffrie G. Murphy (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1971), 39.

Subsequent footnotes
7. Rawls, “Legal Obligation,” 42.

Bibliography

Rawls, John. “Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play.” In Civil Disobedience and Violence, edited by Jeffrie G. Murphy, 39-52. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1971.

 

eBook

First footnote
10. Barbara Stallings, “Chinese Foreign Aid to Latin America: Trying to Win Friends and Influence People,” in The Political Economy of China-Latin America Relations in the New Millennium: Brave New World, eds. Margaret Myers and Carol Wise (New York: Routledge, 2017), 70, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315619484.

Subsequent footnotes
15. Stallings, “Chinese Foreign Aid to Latin America," 72.

Bibliography

Stallings, Barbara. “Chinese Foreign Aid to Latin America: Trying to Win Friends and Influence People.” In The Political Economy of China-Latin America Relations in the New Millennium: Brave New World, edited by Margaret Myers and Carol Wise, 69-91. New York: Routledge, 2017. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315619484.

[14.83]

First footnote
3. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, trans. by D. W. Robertson (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1993), 34.
5. Henry VIII, Assertio septem sacramentorum or Defence of the Seven Sacraments (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1908), 210-211.

Subsequent footnotes
6. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 34.
8. Henry VIII, Seven Sacraments, 152-154.

Bibliography

Augustine. On Christian Doctrine. Translated by D. W. Robertson. Indianapolis, IN:  Bobbs-Merrill, 1993.

Henry VIII. Assertio septem sacramentorum or Defence of the Seven Sacraments. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1908.

[14.104]

First footnote
6. Martin Heidegger, The Essence of Reasons, trans. Terrence Malick (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1969), 56.

Subsequent footnotes
8. Heidegger, Essence of Reasons, 56.

Bibliography

Heidegger, Martin. The Essence of Reasons. Translated by Terrence Malick. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1969.

[14.84]

First footnote
2. University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 234.

Subsequent footnotes
6. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Manual of Style, 234.

Bibliography

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

[14.79]

First footnote
1. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610), 1.

Subsequent footnotes
5. True and Sincere Declaration, 1.

Bibliography

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

Secondary references: [14.260] To cite a source from a secondary source you have not read is generally to be discouraged. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed in the footnotes. The bibliography entry should list the source you actually read.
The example below is a journal article (by Zukofsky) quoted in a book (by Costello). Adjust this example according to the sources you are referring to.

 

First footnote
9. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

Subsequent footnotes
21. Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," 78, quoted in Costello, Marianne Moore, 78.

Bibliography

Costello, Bonnie, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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DOI

Digital object identifier (DOI): [14.161] In the case of eBooks, a URL based on a DOI is required in addition to the publisher information. Append the DOI to https://doi.org/ to form a URL, e.g. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315817224.

 

eBook with DOI

First footnote
2. Claudia Mills and Claudia Nelson, Ethics and Children's Literature (Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2014), 90, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190213343.001.0001.

Subsequent footnotes
5. Mills and Nelson, Ethics and Children's Literature, 91.

Bibliography

Mills, Claudia, and Claudia Nelson. Ethics and Children's Literature. Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2014. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315580319.

No DOI: [14.161] If a DOI is not available, list the name of the commercial eBook platform/database rather than provide any URL e.g. Proquest Ebook Central, Oxford Scholarship Online, ACLS Humanities Ebook.

 

eBook with no DOI

First footnote
1. Paula Connolly, Slavery in American Children's Literature, 1790-2010 (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2013), 52, Proquest Ebook Central.
 

Subsequent footnotes
3. Connolly, Slavery in American Children's Literature, 55.

Bibliography

Connolly, Paula. Slavery in American Children's Literature, 1790-2010. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2013. Proquest Ebook Central.

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Explanatory notes

Initials: [14.73] Authors’ names are normally given as they appear in the source. If an author uses their given name in one work and initials in another, it is preferable to use the full name when citing both, for consistency.
Omit any degrees and affiliations following names.

 

Given names: [14.83] Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as King or Saint are omitted.
Titles: [8.168] When mentioned in text, footnotes, or bibliography, titles and subtitles are italicised and capitalised headline-style. In short form footnotes, the main title of the work is shortened if more than four words.
Place of publication: [14.130] If the city of publication is unknown to readers, include the abbreviation for the state (or country), e.g.:

St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin
Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books
Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press

For the USA, use the two letter postal abbreviation of states; for the UK, just use UK.

Abbreviations in publishers names: [14.134] The can be omitted from a publisher’s name, as can Inc., Ltd., Co., and Publishing Co.
Page numbers: [14.22] Page numbers, if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (e.g. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the chapter number or section heading.

In footnotes: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: only required when citing a book chapter - give the beginning and ending page numbers.

 

eBooks: [14.160] Some eBooks with scrollable text may not have fixed page numbers. In such cases it is best to cite a chapter number or a section heading in the footnote e.g. Robinson, Twentieth Century Poetry, chap. 5.
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