The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, Notes and Bibliography (or Chicago Footnotes) is a referencing style commonly used across the Schools of Philosophy & Theology and Arts & Sciences.
Within Arts & Sciences, the style is used in the following disciplines: English Literature, History, and Theatre Studies. It may also be used in Aboriginal Studies, Politics, Social Justice, and Sociology.
Any time you use an idea or quote from another source, it should be acknowledged in a footnote, including the page number the quote or idea was retrieved from, as well as an entry in the bibliography.
The main components of Chicago Notes & Bibliography style are:
See introductory examples and explanations in the box below.
The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked across many of the examples and notes throughout this guide so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.
1. Tracey Bretag, Handbook of Academic Integrity (New York: Springer, 2016), 3.
3. Bretag, Handbook of Academic Integrity, 5.
The author only form is used only when referring to the previous item cited. The page reference must be repeated even if it is the same as the last-cited location:
3. Murphy and Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism, 143.
4. Murphy and Roberts, 143.
5. Murray Pittock, The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011), 75-76.
6. Murphy and Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism, 145.
7. Pittock, Scottish Romanticism, 78.
In the text, a superscript number should generally be placed at the end of a sentence, clause, or quotation. The number follows any punctuation mark except for a dash:
Murphy and Roberts claim "the Romantics gave priority to ... literature over technology."¹
The corresponding footnote number appears at the bottom of the same page and should contain the reference to the relevant source, including the page number:
1. Peter Murphy and David Roberts, Dialectic of Romanticism (Maldon, MA: Continuum, 2005), 79.
Bretag, Tracey. Handbook of Academic Integrity. New York: Springer, 2016.
Short quotations: In general, a short quotation, especially one that is not a full sentence, should be run-in to the surrounding text and enclosed in quotation marks.
Long quotations: The Chicago Manual of Style doesn't have a strict rule on the formatting of long quotations but generally a hundred words or more, or quoted material of more than one paragraph, can be off set as a block quotation. Block quotations are indented from the left margin, always start a new line, and are not enclosed in quotation marks.
4. Tracey Bretag, Handbook of Academic Integrity (New York: Springer, 2016), 56; Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook, 4th ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 21.
6. Bretag, Handbook of Academic Integrity, 34; Cottrell, Study Skills Handbook, 26.
List citations separately, in alphabetical order.
9. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.
21. Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," 269, quoted in Costello, Marianne Moore, 78.
Costello, Bonnie, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
The University Library provides students with free access to EndNote and RefWorks software.
Both have the same purpose: to make the management and formatting of references more streamlined. It is worth looking at both tools to determine which one could be right for you, depending on how you like to work.
The Library recommends that undergraduate and coursework students use RefWorks, and higher degree by research students and academic staff use EndNote.
Read more about the difference between EndNote and RefWorks.