Skip to main content
Notre Dame 5 Star University
University Library

 

 

 

Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Overview

This page contains examples of references formatted for religious and classical materials. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) offers some guidelines for referencing Biblical and Scriptural materials, but if significant scholarship in Theology is being conducted, CMOS recommends the use of The SBL Handbook of Style [14.238].

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked across some of the examples and notes below so that more information can be located easily in the online manual, where available.

Bible, commentaries, and other sacred works

Bible: [10.44, 14.239] In running text, books of the Bible are written in full:

... According to Genesis 1:27, God created man in his own image.

Abbreviations are appropriate within the text in parentheses, or where there are many references to list without parentheses:

... There are several instances where bread is used in a figurative context (Is 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10)...

... Bread is used in a figurative context in Is 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10...

Abbreviations are also used in footnotes:

5.   Is 55:2; 1 Cor 10:17; 2 Cor 9:10.

Parenthetical or footnote references to the Bible should include book, chapter, and verse (never a page number).

Bibliography entries are not required.

See below for Biblical abbreviations and versions of the Bible.

 

Biblical abbreviations: [OT 10.45, NT 10.47] Use the shorter form abbreviations (without full stops) for references to books of the Old and New Testament .

 

Versions of the Bible: [14.240] Identify which version you are using in the first footnote. Use either the complete name or an accepted abbreviation, e.g.:

6. 2 Kgs 11:8 (New Revised Standard Version).
6.2 Kgs 11:8 (NRSV).

Bible commentary with unidentified authors

First footnote
4. [University of Navarre], The Psalms and the Song of Solomon, The Navarre Bible (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003), 490.

Subsequent footnotes
12. The Psalms and the Song of Solomon, 493.

Bibliography

The Psalms and the Song of Solomon. The Navarre Bible. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003.

 

Bible commentary with two authors

First footnote
7. John R. Donahue and Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Mark, Sacra Pagina 2 (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 2002), 277.

Subsequent footnotes
13. Donahue and Harrington, The Gospel of Mark, 304.

Bibliography

Donahue, John R. and Daniel J. Harrington. The Gospel of Mark. Sacra Pagina 2. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 2002.

 

Single volume Bible commentary with multiple authors (treat as chapter in an edited work)

First footnote
9. Raymond E. Brown and Thomas Aquinas Collins, “Church Pronouncements,” in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, eds. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1991), 1173.

Subsequent footnotes
16. Brown and Collins, “Church Pronouncements”, 1174.

Bibliography

Brown, Raymond E. and Thomas Aquinas Collins. “Church Pronouncements.” In The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, 1166-1174. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1991.

Other sacred works: [14.241] Sacred works of other religious traditions can be treated in a similar way to the Bible and should be cited in the running text and footnotes, but not in the bibliography.

...can be compared to the Qur'an verse (19:17-21) where it mentions that Mary gave birth to Jesus.

6. Qur'an 19:17-21.

Loading ...

Religious works

First footnote
5. John Paul II, Evangelium vitae, encyclical letter, Vatican website, March 25, 1995, http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0141/_INDEX.HTM, sec. 97.
6. Francis, Laudato si’ (Vatican City: Vatican Press, 2015), sec. 23.

Subsequent footnotes
9. John Paul II, Evangelium vitae, sec. 100.
10. Francis, Laudato si', sec. 34

Bibliography

Francis. Laudato si’. Vatican City: Vatican Press, 2015.

John Paul II.  Evangelium vitae. Encyclical Letter. Vatican website. March 25, 1995. http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0141/_INDEX.HTM.

Vatican II is an alternative and acceptable format for the author of these documents.
The complete Vatican II document page range can be included in the bibliography.

Abbreviations for frequently cited works: [14.59] A frequently mentioned work may be abbreviated in parentheses in text or in subsequent footnotes, with the full citation provided in the first footnote (see example below).

 

First footnote
3. Second Vatican Council, "Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium, 21 November, 1964," in Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, ed. Austin Flannery (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1975), sec. 14 (hereafter cited as LG).

Subsequent footnotes
4. LG, sec. 16.

Bibliography

Second Vatican Council. "Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium, 21 November, 1964." In Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, edited by Austin Flannery, 350-426. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1975.

Use paragraph numbers when citing either the print or online version of the Catechism, not page numbers or section numbers.

 

Catechism - print

First footnote
2. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed. (Vatican City: Vatican Press, 1997), 2184.

Subsequent footnotes
6. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2184.

Bibliography

Catechism of the Catholic Church. 2nd ed. Vatican City: Vatican Press, 1997.

 

Catechism - online

Please note: Currently only the first edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is available on the Vatican website, it is therefore recommended that you access the second edition, as cited below, if using an online version.

 

First footnote
3. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed. (Vatican City: Vatican Press, 1997), 2186, http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc.htm.

Subsequent footnotes
5. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2186.

Bibliography

Catechism of the Catholic Church. 2nd ed. Vatican City: Vatican Press, 1997. http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc.htm.

First footnote
2. The Code of Canon Law: in English Translation (London: Collins, 1983), 226.1.

Subsequent footnotes
5. The Code of Canon Law, 226.1.

Bibliography

The Code of Canon Law: in English Translation. London: Collins, 1983.

Use page numbers in footnotes for The Roman Missal and section numbers for "General Instruction of the Roman Missal" and The Rite of Penance.

 

The Roman Missal

First footnote
12. "Prayer over the Offerings, Fourth Sunday of Lent," The Roman Missal, 3rd ed. (London: Catholic Truth Society, 2010), 269.

Subsequent footnotes
15. "Prayer over the Offerings, Fourth Sunday of Lent," 269.

Bibliography

The Roman Missal. 3rd ed. London: Catholic Truth Society, 2010.

 

General Instruction of the Roman Missal

First footnote
2. "General Instruction of the Roman Missal," in The Roman Missal, 3rd ed. (London: Catholic Truth Society, 2010), sec. 69 (hereafter cited as "GIRM").

Subsequent footnotes
6. "GIRM," sec. 69.

Bibliography

Not applicable as it is part of The Roman Missal.

 

The Rite of Penance

First footnote
2. The Rite of Penance (New York: Catholic Book Publishing, 1975), sec. 47.

Subsequent footnotes
6. The Rite of Penance, sec. 47.

Bibliography

The Rite of Penance. New York: Catholic Book Publishing, 1975.

The Summa theologiae consists of three Parts and the Supplement:
Parts (Latin) Parts (English translation) Parts numbered
Pars Prima The First part Ia (or I)
Prima Secundae The First part of The Second part Ia IIae (or I-II)
Secunda Secundae The Second part of The Second part IIa IIae (or II-II)
Pars Tertia The Third part IIIa (or III)
Supplementum The Supplement or IIIa Suppl. (or Suppl.)
  • Each Part is divided into Questions (question = q.)
  • Each Question is divided into Articles (article = a.)
  • The Summa theologiae is cited by part, question, and article (further breakdown is possible - please see AskUs for details).

For example, Ia IIae,  q. 66, a. 3 means, the first part of the second part, question 66, article 3. To cite more than one article at a time, use the abbreviation “arts” for articles, for example: Ia, q. 13, arts 5-6. Page numbers are not required when citing the Summa theologiae.

 

First footnote
2. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologica, trans. Fathers of the English Dominican Province (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1911-1925), IIa-IIae, q. 145, arts 1-2.

Subsequent footnotes
5. Aquinas, Summa theologica, Ia, q. 28, a. 2.

Bibliography

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa theologica. Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1911-1925.

Cite the title as it appears on the title page of the version you are referring to, e.g. Summa theologiae or Summa theologica.
Loading ...

Classical works

[14.242, 14.243]

First footnote
6. Aristotle, Metaphysics 3.2.996b5–8.

Subsequent footnotes
15. Aristotle, Metaphysics 3.2.996b5–8.

Bibliography
Not applicable except when the reference is to information/annotation supplied by a modern author.

[14.251, 14.246]

First footnote
6. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans. H. Rackman, Loeb Classical Library 73 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926), 59,
https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-nicomachean_ethics.1926.
7. Aristotle, Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, ed. J. Barnes, vol. 2, Bollingen Series (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983), 2: 240.

Subsequent footnotes
19. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 61.
20. Aristotle, Complete Works, 2: 243.

Bibliography

Aristotle. Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Edited by J. Barnes. 2 vols. Bollingen Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by H. Rackham. Loeb Classical Library 73. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-nicomachean_ethics.1926.

[14.162]

First footnote
3. Plato, The Republic, trans. Benjamin Jowett (1941; Project Gutenberg, 1998), bk. 4, https://archive.org/stream/therepublic00150gut/repub11.txt.
4. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, trans. W. D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925; Internet Classics Archive, n.d.), bk. 2, http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.2.ii.html.

Subsequent footnotes
6. Plato, Republic, bk. 6.
7. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, bk. 2.

Bibliography

Loading ...

Explanatory notes

Authors known by a given name: [14.83] Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as "King" or "Saint" or place identifiers such as "of Hippo" or "of England" are omitted.
Titles of classical works & titles from other languages: [14.247] Titles of classical works and collections are italicised whether given in full or abbreviated [see also 14.244].
Titles in other languages, Latin, and transliterated Greek titles are capitalised sentence-style [11.6] and italicised [11.8].
Place of publication: Commonly used English names for cities in languages other than English are usually preferred, e.g. use Vatican City: Vatican Press for Citta del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.
If in doubt, you can use the name of the city as it appears within the source.
Loading ...