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Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Main elements - bibliography - webpage

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked across many of the examples and notes below so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Example of Chicago citation of a web resource in a bibliography

Webpages and online documents

Webpage with corporate author [14.207]

First footnote
3. "Data Management Plans," Australian Research Data Commons, accessed July 09, 2020,
4. "Privacy Policy," Privacy & Terms, Google, effective July 1, 2021,

Subsequent footnotes
6. Australian Research Data Commons, “Data Management Plans.”
7. Google, "Privacy Policy."


Australian Research Data Commons. “Data Management Plans.” Accessed July 09, 2020.

Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Effective July 1, 2021.


Webpage with no author [14.207]

First footnote
3. "Workshop: Tapping into Multiple Intelligences," Concept to Classroom, 2004,

Subsequent footnotes
7. "Workshop," Concept to Classroom.


"Workshop: Tapping into Multiple Intelligences." Concept to Classroom. 2004.

Powerpoint slides - online [14.217]

First footnote
6. Ashley Casey, "Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education" (PowerPoint slides, Slideshare, February 16, 2014),

Subsequent footnotes
8. Casey, "Developing a Pedagogy."


Casey, Ashley. "Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education." PowerPoint slides, Slideshare, February 16, 2014.

Government document - online [14.220]

First footnote
8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2010 Pandemic Vaccination Survey: Summary Results (Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, August 2010), 9,

Subsequent footnotes
15. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2010 Pandemic Vaccination Survey, 12.


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2010 Pandemic Vaccination Survey: Summary Results. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, August 2010.

Generative artificial intelligence (Gen-AI)

You must confirm whether the use of generative artificial intelligence (Gen-AI) has been explicitly allowed or is required in your assessment task. Otherwise, using Gen-AI to complete your assessment is a form of plagiarism and may also be a form of contract cheating under University policy.

At present, there are no specific guidelines for referencing AI tools using the Chicago Referencing Style. In the interim use the guidelines for web sources.

You need to credit ChatGPT and similar tools whenever you use the text that they generate in your own work. But for most types of writing, you can simply acknowledge the AI tool in your text (e.g., “The following recipe for pizza dough was generated by ChatGPT”). When a formal citation is required - a numbered footnote or endnote - follow the example below:

First Footnote

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, March 7, 2023, OpenAI,

If f the prompt hasn’t been included in the text, it should be included in the note:

2. ChatGPT, response to “Explain how to make pizza dough from common household ingredients,” March 7, 2023, OpenAI.

Subsequent Footnotes

OpenAI, ChatGPT

Reference list

Do not include an entry in the reference list, as the information is not retrievable.


If the full response has not been included in-text then include an appendix containing the full transcript of any prompts and AI-generated responses.

Social media


First footnote
5. Benjamin Y. Fong, “The Climate Crisis? It’s Capitalism, Stupid,” The Stone (blog), New York Times, November 20, 2017,

Subsequent footnotes
9. Fong, "The Climate Crisis?"


Benjamin Y. Fong. “The Climate Crisis? It’s Capitalism, Stupid.” The Stone (blog). New York Times, November 20, 2017.

For examples and explanatory notes on how to cite a blog comment, see also 14.208.
Social media: [14.209] Follow this link to the online manual for examples and explanatory notes on citing a variety of social media content, including Facebook and Instagram.


First footnote
6. YaleCourses, “0.5 St. Augustine's Confessions,” video of lecture, Paul Freedman, Yale University, published April 5, 2012,

Subsequent footnotes
16. YaleCourses, "Augustine's Confessions.”


YaleCourses. “0.5 St. Augustine's Confessions.” Video of lecture, Paul Freedman, Yale University. Published April 5, 2012.

Explanatory notes

Citing web pages and websites: [14.207] Include as much of the following as can be determined:
  1. The title or description of the specific page;
  2. The title or description of the site as a whole (if different from site owner/sponsor);
  3. The owner/sponsor of the site;
  4. A publication/revision date;
  5. And a URL.

Titles: [14.206] Titles of webpages or sections are capitalised headline-style and placed in quotation marks. Titles of websites are capitalised headline-style without quotation marks and not italicised.

Titles of blogs are italicised and titles of blog posts are placed in quotation marks.

If in doubt about whether something is a blog or a website, treat the title like that of a website.

Dates: [14.207] Include a publication date or date of revision or modification (a copyright date is also acceptable). If a date cannot be found, include an access date in the first footnote and bibliography citations.

Page numbers: [14.22] Page numbers, if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (e.g. as in the case of some online sources), give the section heading, chapter or paragraph number (if available), or a descriptive phrase.