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Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Main elements - bibliography

The relevant Chicago Manual of Style chapters are linked across many of the examples and notes below so that more information can be located easily in the online manual.

Example of Chicago citation of an article in a bibliography.

Authors

[14.7514.171]

First footnote
3. Kory Sorrell, "Pragmatism and Moral Progress: John Dewey’s Theory of Social Inquiry," Philosophy and Social Criticism 39, no. 8 (2013): 815, https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453713494967.

Subsequent footnotes
6. Sorrell, “Pragmatism and Moral Progress,” 815.

Bibliography

Sorrell, Kory. "Pragmatism and Moral Progress: John Dewey’s Theory of Social Inquiry." Philosophy and Social Criticism 39, no. 8 (2013): 809-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453713494967.

Name order - two or three authors: [14.76] Multiple authors of the same work are listed in the order in which they appear with the source. Do not change this order, as the authors are listed according to the contribution they have made to the research.

In a first footnote, the authors' names are given in normal order (i.e. first name first).
In a short form footnote, only the surnames are given.
In a bibliography, only the first author's name is inverted (i.e. surname first). Additional authors' names follow in normal order.

 

First footnote
7. Michael O. Tunnell and James S. Jacobs, "The Origins and History of American Children's Literature," The Reading Teacher 67, no. 2 (2013): 81, https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.1201.

Subsequent footnotes
9. Tunnell and Jacobs, "American Children's Literature," 82.

Bibliography

Tunnell, Michael O., and James S. Jacobs. "The Origins and History of American Children's Literature." The Reading Teacher 67, no. 2 (2013): 80-86. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.1201.

Four to ten authors: [14.76] Word order and punctuation are the same as for the rule for two or three authors.

In a first footnote, only the name of the first author is included, followed by et al.
In a short form footnote, only include the first author's surname followed by et al.
In a bibliography, list all the authors with only the first author's name inverted. (For more than ten authors, list the first seven then et al.)

 

First footnote
4. John Wanna et al., "Commonwealth of Australia: July to December 2012," Australian Journal of Politics and History 59, no. 2 (2013): 276, https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ajph.12016.

Subsequent footnotes
7. Wanna et al., "Commonwealth of Australia," 279.

Bibliography

Wanna, John, David Clune, Nick Economou, Paul D. Williams, Harry C. J. Phillips, Liz Kerr, Haydon Manning, Megan Alessandrini, Robyn Smith, and Maria Maley. "Commonwealth of Australia: July to December 2012." Australian Journal of Politics and History 59, no. 2 (2013): 276-327. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ajph.12016.

Secondary references: [14.260] To cite a source from a secondary source you have not read is generally to be discouraged. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed in the footnotes. The bibliography entry should list the source you actually read.
The example below is a journal article (by Zukofsky) quoted in a book (by Costello). Adjust this example according to the sources you are referring to.

 

First footnote
9. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

Subsequent footnotes
21. Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," 78, quoted in Costello, Marianne Moore, 78.

Bibliography

Costello, Bonnie, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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DOI

Digital object identifier (DOI): [14.8] DOIs are often listed in the form of “DOI:10...” Append this DOI to https://doi.org/ to form a URL, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1086/679716.

 

See examples in the Authors box above.

No DOI: [14.175] In the absence of a DOI, look for a persistent link, often available with the electronic resource, e.g.:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/23356366.
A persistent link, also known as a stable link, or permalink, is a URL that connects directly to a specific article in a library database or online journal. The URL in the browser window is usually not a persistent/stable URL.

Sometimes a suitable URL will not be available and in such cases, include the name of the database rather than the URL.

 

Journal article with no DOI (and no stable/persistent URL)

First footnote
3. Cristina Richie, "Marriage: Patriarchal, Sacramental, or Covenantal?," Priscilla Papers 31, no. 3 (Summer 2017): 19, Ebsco Religion and Philosophy Collection.

Subsequent footnotes
7. Richie, "Marriage,” 20.

Bibliography

Richie, Cristina. "Marriage: Patriarchal, Sacramental, or Covenantal?" Priscilla Papers 31, no. 3 (Summer 2017): 16-22. Ebsco Religion and Philosophy Collection.

 

Journal article with no DOI but with stable/persistent URL

First footnote
2. Denis O'Callaghan, "Partnership and Marriage," The Furrow 64, no. 9 (September 2013): 471, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24635676.

Subsequent footnotes
6. O'Callaghan, "Partnership and Marriage,” 472.

Bibliography

O'Callaghan, Denis. "Partnership and Marriage." The Furrow 64, no. 9 (September 2013): 470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24635676.

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Newspapers and magazines

Newspaper - online [14.191]

First footnote
9. Alvise Armellini, “Restoring Leadership: Why the Cardinals Chose Cardinal Bergoglio as Pope,” news.com.au, March 14, 2013, http://www.news.com.au/world-news/restoring-leadership-why-the-cardinals-chose-cardinal-bergoglio-as-pope-francis/story-fndir2ev-1226597222823.

10. Associated Press, "Police: As Many as 6 Paris Terror Suspects May Be at Large," New York Times, January 12, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2015/01/12/world/europe/ap-eu-france-attacks.html?_r=0.

Subsequent footnotes
11. Armellini, “Restoring Leadership.”

12. Associated Press, “Paris Terror Suspects.”

Bibliography

Armellini, Alvise. “Restoring Leadership: Why the Cardinals Chose Cardinal Bergoglio as Pope.” news.com.au, March 14, 2013. http://www.news.com.au/world-news/restoring-leadership-why-the-cardinals-chose-cardinal-bergoglio-as-pope-francis/story-fndir2ev-1226597222823.

Associated Press. "Police: As Many as 6 Paris Terror Suspects May Be at Large." New York Times, January 12, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2015/01/12/world/europe/ap-eu-france-attacks.html?_r=0.

 

Newspaper - print [14.191]

First footnote
4. Hugh Mackay, “The Rationale of Being Rational,” West Australian, November 4, 2000.

5. "US Goes in Hard After Siege Lifted," Australian, September 2, 2014.

Subsequent footnotes
13. Mackay, “Being Rational.”

15. "US Goes in Hard."

Bibliography

Mackay, Hugh. “The Rationale of Being Rational.” West Australian, November 4, 2000.

"US Goes in Hard After Siege Lifted." Australian, September 2, 2014.

Magazine - online [14.189]

First footnote
6. Lauren Muscat, “Broadening the Ideal of Beauty,” Australian Catholics, Spring 2013, http://www.australiancatholics.com.au/content/view/37/16.

Subsequent footnotes

8. Muscat, “Ideal of Beauty.”

Bibliography

Muscat, Lauren. “Broadening the Ideal of Beauty.” Australian Catholics, Spring 2013. http://www.australiancatholics.com.au/content/view/37/16.

 

 

Magazine - print [14.188]

First footnote
3. David Winfrey, "Biblical Therapy," Christian Century, January 23, 2007, 25.

4. Sandy George, "Twenty-Five and Kicking," Inside Film, April 2012, 30.

Subsequent footnotes
7. Winfrey, "Biblical Therapy," 27

9. George, "Twenty-Five and Kicking," 31.

Bibliography
George, Sandy. "Twenty-Five and Kicking." Inside Film, April 2012.

Winfrey, David. "Biblical Therapy." Christian Century, January 23, 2007.

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Explanatory notes

Initials: [14.73] Authors’ names are normally given as they appear with the source. If an author uses his or her given name in one work and initials in another, use preferably the full name when citing both, for consistency.
Omit any degrees and affiliations following names.

 

Given names: [14.83] Authors known only by their given name (and not by any surname) are listed by that name, e.g. Augustine, Elizabeth I. Titles such as King or Saint are omitted.

Article titles: [14.169] Should be capitalised headline-style and enclosed in quotation marks.

Journal titles: [14.170] Should be italicised and capitalised headline-style.

Newspaper and magazine titles: [14.193] Should be italicised, capitalised headline-style, and if the title contains The, please omit. In some cases, a newspaper will need to be identified by nation. Add this information, in parentheses and without italics, after the italicised title of the newspaper, e.g. Guardian (Australian edition).

Journal articles: [14.171] The year should appear in parentheses after the volume and issue number, and may be preceded by an exact date, a month, or a season, e.g. ...17, no. 2 (April 2013).

When a journal uses an issue number and no volume number, a comma should follow the journal title.

Magazines: [14.188] Even if numbered by volume and issue, magazines are usually cited by date only and the date is not enclosed in parentheses.

Page numbers: [14.174] Page numbers, if available, are required for all footnotes. In the absence of page numbers (e.g. as in the case of some electronic documents), give the paragraph number or section heading.

In footnotes: give the page number from the original source for the quote/idea you have used.
In the bibliography: the full article's page range should be cited.

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