Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Notre Dame 5 Star University
University Library




APA Referencing 7th Edition

Main elements


Books [10.2:20, 9.8]: For in-text citations give only the last name of the author. In the reference list put the last name of the author followed by their initials.
Edited Books or eBooks [10.2: 24, 25]: If the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).



(Cowie, 2019) OR Cowie (2019)

Author, A. A. (2020). Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). Publisher Name.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (2019). Title of book (4th ed.). Publisher Name.  

Reference list

Cowie, H. (2019). From birth to sixteen: Children's health, social, emotional and linguistic development: Routledge.


eBooks [9.3,10.2:20]: Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOI section below for more information. Only use a URL for ebooks found on the web, not for those found in library databases. Do not include a library database URL such as


(Kaza, 2014) OR Kaza (2014)

Author, A. A. (2020).Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). Publisher Name.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (2019). Title of book (2nd ed.). Publisher name. https://xxxx

Reference list

Kaza, S. (2018). What a waste 2.0: A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. World Bank Group 

Two authors [8.17, 9.8]: Give both names with "and" between them if you use the names in a sentence but put "&" between the names if they are enclosed in parentheses. Always use "&" in the reference list.
Edited Books or eBooks [10.2]: If the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).



(Remley & Herlihy, 2020) OR Remley and Herlihy (2020)

Author, A. A., & Author, B, B. (2020). Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). Publisher Name.
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F.F. (Eds.). (2019). Title of book (4th ed.). Publisher name.

Reference list

Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2020). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling (6th ed.). Pearson. 


eBooks [10.2:20]Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOI section below for more information.


(Duggan & Murphy, 2019) OR Duggan and Murphy (2019)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2020). Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). Publisher Name.
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.). (2019). Title of book (2nd ed.). Publisher name. https://xxxx

Reference list

Duggan, W., & Murphy, A. (2019). The art of ideas: Creative thinking for work and life. Columbia University Press.

Three up to twenty authors [8.17, 9.8]Give the name of the first named author only followed by "et al." for in-text citations.  In the reference list, cite all the twenty authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).


In-text citation

(Nankervis et al., 2019) OR Nankervis et al. (2019)

Reference list

Nankervis, A. R., Baird, M., Coffey, J., & Shields, J. (2019). Human resource management: Strategy and practice (10th ed.). Cengage.


eBooks[10.2:20]: Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOI section below for more information.

In-text citation

(Phillips et al., 2020) OR Phillips et al. (2020)

Reference list

Phillips, L. G., Ritchie, J., Dynevor, L., Lambert, J., & Moroney, K. (2020). Young children’s community building in action: Embodied, emplaced and relational citizenship. Routledge.

More than twenty authors [8.17, 9.8]Give the name of the first named author only followed by "et al." for in-text citations. In the reference list, cite the first nineteen authors followed by three ellipsis points (...) but no ampersand (&) and add the last author's name.
Edited Books or eBooks: If the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book (20 or more authors)


(Billingham et al., 2020) OR Billingham et al. (2020)

Reference list

Billingham, A., Aroosh, L., Tinto, Q., Deven, M., Dune, M., Farook, J., Henry, Z., Okomoto, V., Saunters, F., Mirza, J., Arnold, J., Sharma, K., Stevens, D., David, T., Martin, C., Douglas, V., Chand, S. M., Matt, T., Vose, Y., . . . Arathimos, C. (2020). Precious manuscripts of Asia. Oerdmans.


eBooks [10.2:20]: Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOI section below for more information.

No author  [8.14, 9.12, 9.49]: When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title in italics and title case for the in-text citation, and begin the reference in the reference list with the title. Insert the entry into the reference list by alphabetical order using the first word from the title, in sentence case, ignoring any common words such as 'A', 'An' or 'The'.
Anonymous author: If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list. For more information also see unknown or anonymous author.

Book with no author


(Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 2018) OR Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine (2018)

Reference list

Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. (2018). (23rd ed.). Elsevier.

Chapters in edited books [9.28, 10.3]In the in-text citation, give the name of the author of the chapter and year of publication. In the reference list, provide an entry for the entire book, (not only the part you used) and write the name(s) of the authors followed by "In" and the names of the editor(s) and the title of the whole book in italics. Be sure to also include the page range of the chapter itself.
Chapter in an authored book: In the in-text citation, give the name of the author of the book and year of publication. In the reference list create a reference for the whole book.

Chapter in edited Book

(Barker et al. 2019) OR Barker et al. (2019)

Author, A. A., & Author, B, B. (2020).Title of the chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (2nd ed., pp. 123-213). Publisher Name. 

Reference list

Barker, T., Putra, D., & Wiranatha, A. (2019). Authenticity and commodification of Balinese dance performances. In M.K. Smith & M. Robinson (Eds.), Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re)presentation (pp. 215-224). Mulitilingual Matters.

Chapters in edited ebooks [10.3]: For ebook chapters or entries, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.

Chapter in edited eBook


(Hosking, 2019) OR Hosking (2019)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (2020).Title of the chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of the book (pp. 123-213). Publisher Name.


Hosking, G. (2019). The decline of trust in government. In M. Sasaki (Ed.), Trust in contemporary society (pp. 77-103).

Organisation or corporate author [8.21, 9.11, 10.4]: If an organisation (i.e. company, institution, government body, religious organisation or other type of organisation) is the author, use the organisation’s name in place of an individual's name. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

Organisation or Corporate Author

Two authors with the same surname [8.20, 9.48]: Where authors share the same surname but have different initials, include the initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs. If the authors share the same surname and initials, cite the works in standard author-date format. In reference lists arrange works by first authors with the same surname and different initials alphabetically by the first initial(s).

Authors with the same surname

Secondary references [8.6]: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. This is discouraged in scholarly writing. Students should find the original source and interrogate its meaning directly. When an author’s work is presented through someone else’s eyes, it can impose an interpretation and understanding that is held by the second author rather than the meaning intended by the original author. In some cases, the second author may even be debunking the original or looking at it from a completely different perspective, and the variation in context may be missed by you, leading to a serious distortion in meaning,

If you wish to use secondary referencing, contact your lecturer or tutor: if they allow it, then follow the instructions below; if they do not allow it, find a different source for your discussion.

You must make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, like the example below, you would provide the details for Phillips et al. in the reference list, not Yengyoyan.

Source within a source

Yengyoyan's work (1987) as cited in Phillips et al. (2019) regards kin classification to be the basis of social structure for Aboriginal people (p. 212). 

Reference list

Phillips, G. L, Ritchie, J., Dynevor, L., Lambert, J., & Moroney, K. (2019). Young children's community building in action: Embodied, emplaced and relational citizenship. Routledge.

Components of book and ebook citation

Date [9.4: Table 9.1, 9.26]: If no date can be found, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date) in place of the date. If no date is available but it is possible to estimate it, use "ca." (abbreviation of circa) followed by the estimated year of publication.

No date


(Weber, n.d.) OR Weber (n.d.)

Reference list 

Weber, C. (n.d.). Romanticism and parenting: Image, instruction and ideology. Cambridge Scholars.

Edition [9.14; 9.20; 10.2]: Only include an edition number if the book is the 2nd edition or later. If there has only been one edition of the book, there is no need to include the edition number. 

Volumes, translations, republication and series:
Include volume, series title, translation and republication information in the reference list.
Series (Volumes)
Only include the series title and volume number of a book in the reference list if it is part of a multivolume work, such as a handbook with five volumes. When a book is a part of a series (e.g. Harry Potter) but separate works, include only the book title in the reference. If the volume does not have its own title, include the volume number in parentheses without italics.

Travis, C.B., & White, J.W. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol.1. History, theory, and battlegrounds. American Psychological Association.

Author, A. A., & Author, B, B. (2020).Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). Publisher Name.

Book translated from the original

Original-Author (2020/1957) or Original-Author (2020/1957)

Reference list
Original-​Author, A. A.(2020). Title of book (​T. Translator, Trans. 2nd ed.). Publisher Name​. (Original work published in 1957).


Book edited and translated from the original 


Dickens (2019/1920) or Dickens (2019/1920)

Reference list
Dickens, C. (2019). A tale of two cities (J. Blogs, Ed. & Trans.). Publisher Name​. (Original work published in 1859).

Chapter in an edited book translated from the original
Original-​Author, A. A.(2018). Title of the chapter (​T. Translator, Trans.). In  E.E. Editor (Ed.). Title of the book ( pp.123-213). Publisher Name​. (Original work published in 1979).

Using a direct quote from a book with no page numbers [8.28]: Written material found on webpages, websites and some eBooks don't always have page numbering. If no page numbers exist, you can use paragraph numbers, headings or a combination of both to help locate the quoted text.
Heading: Provide the heading or sub-heading name. Long headings can be abbreviated. Enclose the name of the heading in quotation marks if it is abbreviated 
e.g. What does the Professor Want? Understanding the Assignment, can be  abbreviated to "What does the Professor want?" section.
Paragraph number: Provide the paragraph number
 (counted by you from the beginning of the document). Leave the paragraph numbers out of the reference list entry.
Combination of both heading and paragraph number (paragraph number counted from the beginning of the heading or sub-heading) to identify the place in the article. 



Guptill informs us that "many of the rules of formal writing exist to promote clarity and precision which writers much achieve in order to effectively convey ideas, evidence, and arguments" (Guptill, 2016, Getting the Mechanics Right section , para. 1.)

Reference list:

Guptill, A. (2016). Writing in College: From competence to excellence. Open SUNY Textbooks.

Name of publisher [9.29]: The publisher name is included as part of the reference for whole books, edited book chapters and reports.The location of the publisher is not required. Write the publisher name as shown on the work followed by a full stop. Do not abbreviate the publisher name unless shown in an abbreviated form on the work. The format of publisher name may vary over time or across works so use the spelling and capitalization as shown on the work. When writing the publisher name, do not include abbreviations such as Ltd., Inc., Co., etc.

Multiple publishers: If two or more publishers are listed on the copyright page, include them all in the order shown separated by semicolons.

Author same as publisher: When the author is the same as the publisher (for example, with an Annual Report written and published by a company), do not repeat the name as the publisher. End the publisher information with a full stop followed by a DOI or URL if applicable. 

Reference list

Storey, J., Ulrich, D., & Wright, P. M. (2019). Strategic human resource management: A research overview. Routledge.

(Note: Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group).

Two or more publishers 

McLaughlin, M. A. S. (2019). Cardiovascular care made incredibly easy (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Publisher as author

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2019). OECD Economic Surveys: New Zealand 2019

DOIs and URLs [9.34, 9.35, 9.36]: DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) form the final part of the reference and should be included when a work is in an electronic format. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string associated with its content and provides a permanent link to its location on the internet. Always provide the DOI for a work if it is given, even if you used the print version rather than the online version.

DOI format: Provide the DOI as a hyperlink beginning with "" (e.g. 
Do not put a full stop or other punctuation after a DOI. Note: As some references may use an older format (doi:10.4324/9781315573632)of DOI you may need to add the prefix shown above to the DOI to provide a direct link to the work.

Short DOIA shortened URL is acceptable in a reference as long as the link retrieves the correct location. Use the shortDOI service to create short DOIs. 

eBook with a DOI 

Reference list

Wenzel, A. (2019). Cognitive behavioral therapy for beginners: An experiential learning approach. Routledge.


No DOI - online ebook [9.30, 9.34, 9.35, 9.36]: Where no DOI is given for an eBook located on the internet, the URL (uniform resource locator) should be used instead if the URL is available to all users. This specifies the location of digital information on the internet and is found in the address bar of your internet browser. This will direct the reader to the homepage of the online platform that hosts the eBook. URLs should link directly to the cited work where possible.

No DOI - library database eBook: Where an eBook has been found through a library search of online databases (for example Ebook Central, EBSCOhost, JSTOR, MEDLINE, Taylor & Francis, ScienceDirect), do not include the library database URL or the database or platform name in the reference list entry. For more information about database eBook references, see the APA Style Guide.

Finding a DOI: You can check for a DOI by using the free DOI search tool called Crossref: an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI. If there is no DOI, provide the URL for an online work.


eBook with no DOI from the Internet

Reference list

Hosier, A., Bullis, D., Bernnard, D., Bobish, G., Holden, I., Hecker, J. P., Loney, T. & Jacobson, T. (2014). The information literacy user's guide: An open, online textbook. Open SUNY Textbooks.

eBook with no DOI from a library database (example from JSTOR:

Reference list

Dibden, J. (2019). Drawing in the land: Rock art in the Upper Nepean, Sydney Basin, New South Wales. ANU Press.