Components of in-text citations
Author and Date
The two main components of an in-text citation when paraphrasing and summarising are the author name(s) and the date.
An in-text citation can take two forms:
Narrative citations occur when the information being quoted is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence for example,
"Smith (2019) states that......"
Parenthetical citations are when the author(s) name and publication date both appear in brackets, either within, or at the end of the sentence, for example,
Page or paragraph number
If you are directly quoting from the source, you must also include the page number, or if no page number is provided, give a paragraph number using the abbreviation "para." (e.g. Biddle, 2013, para. 6) and enclose the quote in double quotation marks. For long quotations use the block quotation format, and in this case quotation marks are not needed.
Rossiter (2019) postulates that “if there was no significant child obesity problem in the preregulation era when children were exposed to more junk food advertising than they are today, how can today's junk‐food advertising possibly be blamed for today's problem?" (p. 280-281).
"There is a significant relationship between consumers’ culture and self-oriented (personal) values with respect to purchase of sustainable luxury fashion goods" (Jain, 2019, p.134).
Nilsson (2019) states:
The development of urban bicycle tourism may be viewed as an innovative process based on incremental change in local and regional socio-technological mobility systems. In order to understand the role of tourism in it, such a system needs to be treated holistically. Changes in local transport systems including modal split between means of transport are influenced by a wide range of material and non-material factors. This means that to understand the role of cycling and tourist cycling in an urban context, a view involving several different perspectives needs to be applied. (p. 1652)
...of material and non-material factors. This means that to understand the role of cycling and tourist cycling in an urban context, a view involving several different perspectives needs to be applied. (Nilsson, 2019, p.1652)
While many students found that grades were important, not all considered them a meaningful measure of success at university (Picton, Kahu, & Nelson, 2018).
According to Picton, Kahu and Nelson (2018) many students found that grades were important, not all considered them a meaningful measure of success at university.
Multiple works by different authors
This theory has been disproved by others, who claim that the sky is not always blue (Barnes & Seung, 2017; Chan, 2019; Kimberley, 2010).
Kimberley (2010), Chan (2019), and Barnes and Seung (2017) all agree that the sky is not always blue.
Citing multiple works by same author
Arrange citations by year of publication with no date first followed by dates in chronological order.
Pilbara Development Commission (n.d., 2000, 2016, 2019)
McGill (2017a, 2017b, 2019)
Firoz et al. (2014, 2016, 2019)
Hall (2019a) or (Hall, 2019a)
Hall (2019b) or (Hall, 2019b)
Hall, M. C. (2019a). Constructing sustainable tourism development: The 2030 agenda and the managerial ecology of sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 27(7), 1044-1060. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1560456
Hall, M. C. (2019b). Tourism and rewilding: An introduction - definition, issues and review. Journal of Ecotourism. 18(4), 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1560456
Authors with same surname - single reference
Ryan and Ryan (2020) or (Ryan & Ryan, 2020)
First authors with same surname and initials - multiple references
Hall et al. (2018), Hall and Singh (2018) and Sharma (2019) or (Hall et al., 2019; Hall & Singh, 2018 & Sharma, 2019)
First authors with same surname, different initials - multiple references
J. Kim and Seo, (2019) and M. Kim et al. (2020) or (J. Kim & Seo, 2019 & M. Kim et al., 2020)
Kim, J., & Seo, Y. (2019). An evolutionary perspective on risk taking in tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 58(8), 1235-1248. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518807579
Kim, M. J., Lee, C.-K., & Jung, T. (2020). Exploring consumer behavior in virtual reality tourism using an extended stimulus-organism-response model. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 69-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518818915
World Health Organisation (WHO, 2020), and for subsequent uses, WHO (2020)
(World Health Organisation [WHO], 2020), and for subsequent uses, (WHO, 2020)
Anonymous (2018) or (Anonymous, 2018)
Anonymous. (2018). Iran disillusioned. Survival, 60(2), 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2018.1448598
Forensic mental health evaluations in the digital age (2020) or (Forensic mental health evaluations in the digital age, 2020)
Forensic mental health evaluations in the digital age: A practitioner’s guide to using internet-based data (2020). Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33908-1
Source within a source
Yengyoyan's work (1987) as cited in Phillips et al. (2019) regards kin classification to be the basis of social structure for Aboriginal people (p. 212).
Phillips, G. L, Ritchie, J., Dynevor, L., Lambert, J., & Moroney, K. (2019). Young children's community building in action: Embodied, emplaced and relational citizenship. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429428531
Narrative citation: T. Nguyen (personal communication, February 24, 2020)
Parenthetical citation: (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020)
Research participant interviews
"Ruohong", for instance, best exemplified how the museum restaurant could fit the context of the museum and thus create a coherent food experience in the museum restaurants.
I suppose, to feature the same characteristics of the museum, the menu [and dishes] would be special and refer to the history of each dish presented in the museum. The decoration can also be improved. The visual elements, such as the entire design of the restaurant, the styles of the tables and chairs, and the waiters’ dresses, need to be uniquely and consistently related to the ones of the museum. Perhaps hang some introductions of the Hangzhou signature dishes on the wall in the restaurant, as if it is a small scale of museum.
Hubbard et al. (2018, Table 1) show the effects of varying amount of managerial power on the role of board of directors...
As shown in Table 1, zone 3 and 4 are low population density regions...
Figure 2 shows the market share of the mining industry remained stable ....
.......the results of the survey (see Table 3).
.......after market comparison (see Figures 4 and 5).
This romantic view of chivalry is also present in The Accolade (De La Sizeranne, 2012, p. 25), a prominent pre-Raphaelite painting.