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APA Referencing 7th Edition


Interviews and Personal Communications [8.7, 8.9, 8.36]: An interview is a dialogue or exchange of information between people and can be either a published interview, personal interview or research participant interview. Personal interviews are treated as personal communications because they cannot be retrieved. 

Personal communications are generally unpublished and includes emails, text messages, online chats, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from discussion groups or online bulletin boards.

Published interviews can appear in many places: magazines; newspapers; a radio broadcast or podcast episode; YouTube video; TV show or transcript of a video or audio recording. To cite a published interview, refer to the format for that type of reference for example a YouTube video or radio broadcast. The person being interviewed will not necessarily appear as the author of the reference. Where this is the case, integrate the person's name into the narrative of the sentence if needed.

Personal interviews are those conducted by yourself to obtain information and to support a key point in your paper, for example, an email requesting information. As readers cannot retrieve this type of interview, cite it as a Personal communication. Personal interviews are not included in the reference list; only cited as in-text references. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator and provide an exact a date as possible using the format given below. 

Research participant interviews are those conducted as part of your methodology in your own research. They do not require a citation because you do not cite your own work in the paper in which it is first being reported. However, information and quotations taken from research participant interviews can be included in your paper, following the formatting guidelines for a Direct quote.

Personal communications are not included in your final reference list, however, you may still refer to them in your text.

Published interviews


(Goldwater, 2020OR Goldwater (2020)

Reference list 

Goldwater, M. (2020, February 23). Dr Micah Goldwater discusses pseudoscience [Interview]. All in the mind with Sana Qadar: Suckers for pseudoscience. ABC Radio National.

Personal interviews


(T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020) OR T. Nguyen (personal communication, February 24, 2020) 

Research participant interviews

Participant "Ruohong", for instance, best exemplified how the museum restaurant could fit the context of the museum and thus create a coherent food experience in the museum restaurants.  

I suppose, to feature the same characteristics of the museum, the menu [and dishes] would be special and refer to the history of each dish presented in the museum. The decoration can also be improved. The visual elements, such as the entire design of the restaurant, the styles of the tables and chairs, and the waiters’ dresses, need to be uniquely and consistently related to the ones of the museum. Perhaps hang some introductions of the Hangzhou signature dishes on the wall in the restaurant, as if it is a small scale of museum.