Skip to main content
Notre Dame 5 Star University
University Library

 

 

 

APA Referencing 7th Edition

Overview

Terminology - figures, images, tables [7]: Tables usually show numerical values or text arranged in columns or rows. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure, for instance: charts, graphs, photographs or drawings. The terms figure and image are used interchangeably on this page.
Copyright attribution [7.7]: If you reuse or adapt a table or figure from another source in your paper, you must include a copyright attribution in the table/figure note, indicating the origin of the material in addition to the reference list entry.
Permissions [7.7]: For university coursework, you generally do not need to ask the author for permission to use the image - only a reference is needed. If you are publishing your work, or using images for non-educational purposes, see our Copyright Guide page on using images.

 

Referencing tables & figures

Basic components of tables and figures
 

Number: Tables and figures are numbered sequentially (e.g., Table 1, Table 2...Figure 1, Figure 2..). They appear above the title in bold font and are left aligned.

Title: The title appears one double-space below the table or figure number in italics, title case (where all significant words are capitalised) and left aligned. The title should briefly describes the content of the table or figure (e.g., Results From a Factor Analysis of the Parental Care and Tenderness (PCAT) Questionnaire).

Table/Figure: Align all tables and figures with the left margin regardless of where they appear in the paper.

Note: (Coursework students please check with your lecturer to see how much detail they require).
Notes can appear below the figure or table to describe content that cannot be understood from the title, figure or table, and/or legend alone (e.g., definitions of abbreviations, explanation of symbols, copyright attribution).
Notes are preceded by the label "Note" written in italics. Notes should be double spaced and aligned left and in the same font as the text of the paper (e.g. Note. Reverse-score items are denoted with an (R)).
Note should state where the figure or image was copied or adapted (e.g. "From" or "Adapted from"). 
Provide the title, author, year of publication, and source of the material.
State the copyright year and the name of the copyright holder (e.g. Copyright 2020 by McGraw Hill), or provide Creative Commons license ( e.g. CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).

In-text referencing

Referencing table and figures in the text [7.5]: Number all the tables and figures that are part of the main text. In the text refer to them by their number. Do not write "the table above or below" or the" the figure on page 12". 


In-text 

Hubbard et al. (2018, Table 1) show the effects of varying amount of managerial power on the role of board of directors...

As shown in Table 1, zone 3 and 4 are low population density regions...

Figure 2 shows the market share of the mining industry remained stable ....

.......the results of the survey (see Table 3).

.......after market comparison (see Figures 4 and 5).

Referencing images without displaying them in the text: If you are discussing an image in your work, but not including the actual image, use the same approach as you would for any typical reference by including the author and date of publication in-text (including page numbers where possible), and a full reference list entry in the format appropriate for the source you found the image in (book, website, etc).

In-text
This romantic view of chivalry is also present in The Accolade (De La Sizeranne, 2012, p. 25), a prominent pre-Raphaelite painting.


Displaying tables and figures in a written work (essay, report etc) [7.4; 7.6]: When you display a table or an image in your work, align it left. You need to label it, and provide an in-text citation, as well as include a reference list entry for it. Number the image in the order it appears in your work (Table 1, Table 2, etc) and include a descriptive Title below. Please see the other tabs in the box  below for examples of how to reference  tables and images from a variety of sources.

 

The example below shows how a table can be displayed within the text of your document. Check with your lecturer to determine their preferences for displaying figures.



Reference list

Beard, F. H., Leask, J., & McIntyre, P. B. (2017). No jab, no pay and vaccine refusal in Australia: The jury is out. Medical Journal of Australia, 206(9), 381-383. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja16.00944

Displaying images in a presentationIn a presentation (such as a PowerPoint presentation, poster etc), the figure or table number and title are optional but the note containing the copyright attribution is required.Coursework students please check with your lecturer to see how much detail they require. You may choose to include the full reference at the bottom of each slide, or an in-text reference within each slide combined with a full reference list at the end. Consult your lecturer or supervisor for guidance on how best to display references in your presentation and if they are happy for you to follow the guidelines below:

undefined
undefined

Referencing images

Table or figure - from a website

Note. From [or Adapted from] Title of Webpage [Description], by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Site Name (URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.
(When the author is same as the website name, omit the site name) 

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 6

Quokka, Western Australia's World Famous Wallaby

undefined

Note. From Meet the Quokka: Western Australia's World Famous Wallaby [Photograph]by The Nature Conservancy Australia, 2020

(https://www.natureaustralia.org.au/what-we-do/our-priorities/wildlife/wildlife-stories/meet-the-quokka/). Copyright 2020 by

Sam West.

In-text (below displayed image)

Reference list

The Nature Conservancy Australia. (2020). Quokka, Western Australia's world famous wallaby, [Photograph]. https://www.natureaustralia.org.au/what-we-do/our-priorities/wildlife/wildlife-stories/meet-the-quokka/

Image from Flickr & Stock Images

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 5

Port of Fremantle

undefined

Note. From Port of Fremantle [Photograph]by A.Chuan, 2011, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/yevon/5459700844). CC BY-SA 2.0.

In-text (below displayed image)

Reference list

Chuan, A. (2010). Port of Fremantle [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/yevon/5459700844

Image from Instagram, Facebook,Twitter, Reddit & TikTok

Note. From [or Adapted from] Title of Webpage [Description], by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Site Name (URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.
(When the author is same as the website name, omit the site name) 

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 5

One Day in Fremantle



Note. From One Day in Fremantle [Poster]by City of Fremantle, 2018, Instagram (https://www.instagram.com/cityoffremantle/). Copyright 2018 by City of Fremantle Council.

In-text (below displayed image)

Reference list

 Author, A. A. or Organization Name [@Instagram or Twitter handel]. (Year, Month Date). First 20 words of the post as title -  count a URL, hashtag or an emoji (emoji not to be italicized) as one word [Description]. Site name. URL of the image

City of Fremantle. [@cityoffremantle] (2018, December 20). One Day returns for 2019, featuring Sydney-based singer-songwriter @actualmontaigne and soul singer @a.eagle with more to be announced soon [Poster]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Brl65FOlbrH/

Table or figure - from a book

Note. From [or Adapted from] Title of the Book (x ed.p. xx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Publisher. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

In-text (above displayed table)

Table 1

The post-truth condition in society and its PR components

Note. From Post-Truth Public Relations: Communication in an Era of Digital Disinformation (p. 5) by G. Thompson, 2020,

Routledge. Copyright 2020 by Gareth Thompson.

In-text (below displayed table)

Reference list

Thompson, G. (2020). Post-truth public relations: Communication in an era of digital disinformation. Routledge.

Table or figure - from a chapter in an edited book

Note. From [or Adapted from] “Title of Chapter,” by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, in C. C. Editor (Ed.), Title of Book (x ed., p. xx), year, Publisher. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

 

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 2

The Six-Stage Model of Public Health Planning

Note. Adapted from "Public Health: Planning and Evaluation", by S. Wark, in P. Liamputtong (Ed.),  Public Health: Local and

Global Perspectives(2nd ed., p. 245), 2019, Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2019 by Cambridge University Press.

In-text (below displayed figure)

Reference list

Wark, S. (2019). Public health: Planning and evaluation. In P. Liamputtong (Ed.). Public health: Local and global perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 241-260). Cambridge University Press.

Table or figure - from an eBook

Note. From [or Adapted from] Title of the Book (x ed.p. xx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 2

Into the Storm: Ragnarok, End of Days by Abraham Anghik Ruben

undefined
Note. From The Contemporary Medieval Practice (p. 65) by C. A. Lees and G. R. Overing, 2019, UCL Press

(https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dxh3). Copyright 2020 by Kipling Gallery, Vancouver. 

In-text (below displayed image)

Reference list

Lees, C. A. & Overing, G. R. (2019). The contemporary medieval in practice. UCL Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dxh3

Table or figure - from a chapter in an edited ebook

Note. From [or Adapted from] “Title of Chapter,”[Description] by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, in C. C. Editor (Ed.), Title of Book (x ed., p. xx), year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

In-text (above displayed table)

Table 4

Students' General Usage of Mobile Phones in their Daily Life.
undefined
 

Note. From "A Pilot Study of Mobile Learning in Higher Education in Samoa", by S. Ozawa and E. T. Ualesi, in A. Murphy, H. Farley, L. E. Dyson  and H. Jones (Eds.), Mobile Learning in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Harnessing Trends and Challenging Orthodoxies, (p. 562), 2017, Springer (https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dxh3). Copyright 2017 by Springer Nature Singapore.

In-text (below displayed table)

Reference list

Osawa, S. & Ualesi, E. T. (2019). A pilot study of mobile learning in higher education in Samoa. In A. Murphy, H. Farley, L. E. Dyson  and H. Jones (Eds.)Mobile learning in higher education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Harnessing trends and challenging orthodoxies (2nd ed., pp. 241-260). Springer. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dxh3

 

Table or figure - from a journal article with a DOI

Note. From [or Adapted from] “Title of Article,” by I. I. Author and I. I. Author, year, Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 3

Number of Indigenous paintings sold at auction and number of artists with who generated the work

Note. From “Pre‐sale Information and Hammer Prices for Australian Indigenous Art”, by L. Farrell and T. R.L  Fry, 2017, Journal of Political Economy64(5), p. 492 (https://doi.org/10.1111/sjpe.12136). Copyright 2017 Scottish Economic Society.

In-text (below displayed image)

Reference list

Farrell, L., & Fry, T. R. L. (2017). Pre‐sale information and hammer prices for Australian Indigenous art. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 64(5), 483-500.https://doi.org/10.1111/sjpe.12136

Table or figure - from a government document

Note. From [or Adapted from] Title of the Report (p. xxx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license.

 

In-text (above displayed table)

Table 2

Australia's population by country of birth, 2018(a)

undefined

Note. (a) Estimates are preliminary. (b) Top 10 overseas-born countries listed for 2018. (c) Proportion of the total population of Australia. From Migration, Australia  2017-2018 (No. 3412.0). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Copyright 2018 by Australian Bureau of Statistics.

In-text (below displayed table)

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Migration, Australia  2017-2018 (No. 3412.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3412.0Main%20Features22017-18

Original images [7.30]If you created the image (this is usually the case when you are displaying your own data that you have compiled in a graph or chart, or your own photograph), you do not need to reference it, no citation or copyright attribution is required. The image must be clearly labeled with a table or figure number and title. See below for examples.


Photograph taken by you

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 3

Food Truck Businesses at South Beach, Fremantle.

undefined


Image created by you

In-text (above displayed image)

Figure 4

Nursing undergraduate students by age.


Table created by you

In-text (above displayed table)

Table 6

Results for Blood Glucose Measurements
undefined

 

Please click on the link below for examples on referencing artwork