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APA Referencing 7th Edition

Main elements - Journal articles

APA 7 journal article example

Authors

One author [8.17]: For in-text citations give only the last name of the author. In the reference list put the last name of the author followed by their initial(s).

In-text

(Abadi, 2020) OR Abadi (2020)

Reference list

Abadi, J. (2020). Perception and reality in US-Lebanon relations. Middle Eastern Studies, 56(2), 305-326. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263206.2019.1678466

Two authors [8.17]: For in-text citations give both names with "and" between them if you use the names in a sentence, but put "&" between the names if they are enclosed in parentheses. Always use "&" in the reference list.

In-text

(Colwell & Hutchinson, 2018) OR Colwell and Hutchinson (2018)

Reference list

Colwell, J., & Hutchinson, A. C. (2018). Considering a twitter-based professional learning network in literacy education. Literacy Research and Instruction, 57(1), 5-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2017.1370749

Three or more authors [8.17, 9.8]: For in-text citations include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation.  Provide all names in the reference list. Use "&" before the final author's name.


In-text

(Lyman et al., 2014)  OR Lyman et al. (2014)

Reference list

Lyman, D. R., Kurtz, M. M., Farkas, M., George, P., Dougherty, R. H., Daniels, A. S., Ghose, S.S., & Delphin-Rittmon, M. E. (2014). Skill building: Assessing the evidence. Psychiatric Services, 65(6), 727-738. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201300251

More than twenty authors [8.17, 9.8]: For in-text citations include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation.  Include the first 19 authors' names , then insert "..." and add the final author's name in the reference list.


In-text

(Clément et al., 2017)  OR Clément et al. (2017)

Reference list

Clément, Y., Sarah, G., Holtz, Y., Homa, F., Pointet, S., Contreras, S., Nabholz, B., Sabot, F., Sauné, L., Ardisson, M., Bacilieri, R., Besnard, G., Berger, A., Cardi, C., De Bellis, F., Fouet, O., Jourda, C., Khadari, B., Lanaud, C.,... Glémin, S. (2017). Evolutionary forces affecting synonymous variations in plant genomes. PLoS Genetics, 13(5), Article e1006799. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006799

Organisation or corporate author [8.21]: If an organisation (i.e. company, institution, government body, religious organisation, or other type of organisation) is the author, use the organisation’s name in place of an individual's name. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

First in-text citation

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2016) OR World Health Organization (WHO, 2016)

Subsequent in-text citations

(WHO, 2016) OR WHO (2016)

Reference list

World Health Organization. (2016). Malaria vaccine: WHO position paper, January 2016 – recommendations. Vaccine, 36(25), 3576-3577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.047

No author [8.14]: When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title enclosed in double quotation marks for in-text citations, and include the full title in place of the author name in the reference list. If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list.

No author - journal article

In-text

("What Role", 2014)  OR "What Role" (2014)

Reference list

What role can physical education play in deterring violence in our society? (2014). Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(6), 49-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2014.927685

Author shown as "Anonymous"

In-text

(Anonymous, 2019) OR Anonymous (2019)

Reference list

Anonymous. (2019). Dignity and safety. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 73(4), 417-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.12.001

Two authors with the same surname [8.20]: Use the authors' initials in all citations.

In-text
J. J. Smith (2004) contradicts R. A. Smith (1999)

More than one work by the same author in the same year [8.19]: Identify each source with a letter (a, b, c, etc.) after the year in both the in-text reference and your reference list. The letters follow the order in which the references appear in your reference list.


Reference List

Duarte Alonso A., Kok, S., & O'Brien, S. (2018a). Sustainable culinary tourism and Cevicherias: A stakeholder and social practice approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism26(5), 812-831. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1414224

Duarte Alonso A., Kok, S., & O'Brien, S. (2018b). 'We are only scratching the surface": A resource-based and dynamic capabilities approach in the context of culinary tourism development. Tourism Recreation Research, 43(4), 511-526. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2018.1473196

Secondary references [8.6]: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. This is discouraged in scholarly writing. Students should find the original source and interrogate its meaning directly. When an author’s work is presented through someone else’s eyes, it can impose an interpretation and understanding that is held by the second author rather than the meaning intended by the original author. In some cases, the second author may even be debunking the original or looking at it from a completely different perspective, and the variation in context may be missed by you, leading to a serious distortion in meaning,

If you wish to use secondary referencing, contact your lecturer or tutor: if they allow it, then follow the instructions below; if they do not allow it, find a different source for your discussion.

You must make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Drew in the reference list, not Pea.


Source within a source
In-text

Pea (as cited in Drew, 2019) found that... OR (as cited in Drew, 2019) OR Drew (2019) describes Pea's recent research on...

Reference list

Drew, C. (2019). Re-examining cognitive tools: New developments, new perspectives, and new opportunities for educational technology research. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(2), i-v. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5389

Preprint [10.8]: Preprints are articles published ahead of peer review. This is increasingly common in the medical and biological sciences, allowing for rapid feedback and reporting on findings.  Preprints can be find in dedicated repositories as well as some journals. Refer to the final published version of the source you have used. Include name of the repository and the DOI or URL, whichever is available.

 

In-text

(Tillman, 2020) OR Tillman (2020)

Reference list

Tillman, G. (2020). Disordered social media use and fear of COVID-19 and the association with stress and depression. PsyArxiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dbg62

Advance online publication [10.1]: Advance online publications include works that have been published online but have not yet been assigned a volume and issue number, and may be called "online first publication", "epub ahead of print" or "advance online publication". To simplify, just call these types of documents "Advance online publications".

 

In-text

(Huestegge et al., 2019) OR Huestegge et al. (2019)

Reference list

Huestegge, S.M., Raettig, T., & Huestegge, L. (2019). Are face-incongruent voices harder to process? Effects of face–voice gender incongruency on basic cognitive information processing. Experimental Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000440

DOI

DOI [9.35]: When citing electronic sources, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if it is shown on the item or indicated in a database record for the item.The DOI is a unique code assigned to electronic sources that can be used to find references. Do not put a full stop or other punctuation after a DOI, and there should be no spaces.

The DOI should appear using the format shown in the example below:

https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014


The preferred format of the DOI has changed over time. Although older journal articles may use previous formats, you should standardise DOIs to a single format in your document. The current preferred format is "https://doi.org/" - this presents the DOI as a link, followed by the DOI number.

 

No DOI [9.34]:  Where no DOI is given for an electronic resource, do not include a URL or database information in the reference.  Where an electronic article has been found on the internet (i.e. not through a library search), give the full URL to the web page where it was found.

No DOI for journal article

No DOI for newspaper article

Finding a DOI: There are a few ways to find a DOI for journals, eBooks and other sources:

1. Look at the source to find the DOI. For journals, look at the first page of the article. For eBooks, look for any book details on the web page that hosts the eBook.

2. Search for the title of the item on the Crossref Metadata Search. The DOI will usually display under the item result.

3. In FiNDit search results, you can sometimes find the DOI by clicking on the Preview link.

If you cannot find a DOI through any of these methods, it is possible that the item does not have a DOI. If this is the case, just follow the examples listed under No DOI on either the Books & eBooks, or the Journals, Newspapers and Magazines pages.

Newspapers and magazines

Newspapers and news websites [10.1, 10.16]: There is a slight difference in the presentation of a reference for an article from an online news website vs an online newspaper. A webpage on an online news website is treated as web reference (with the article title in italics).
When you find a newspaper article that is available only via library subscription or behind a paywall (often these are library databases), provide the title of the newspaper and any volume, issue, and/or page numbers that are available for the article. Do not include any database information or links in the reference.
However, if the newspaper article was found in a database that is available free to the public (e.g. Trove), provide the direct link to the article


Newspaper - online 

In-text

(Karatas, 2020) OR Karatas (2020)

Reference list

Karatas, Z. (2020, March 14). Camel wrestling: It's a thing, and we have video. The Washington Posthttps://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/03/14/camel-wrestling-its-thing-we-have-video/ 

Newspaper - print 

In-text

Zimmerman (2020) OR (Zimmerman, 2020)

Reference list

Zimmerman, J. (2020, January 24). Collie goes high tech for jobs. The West Australian, 10-11.

Article from a news website 

In-text

Brown (2020) OR (Brown, 2020)

Reference list

Brown, N. (2020, February 13). In defense of the more controversial avocado, the Shepard. News.com.au. https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/food/eat/in-defence-of-the-more-controversial-avocado-the-shepard/news-story/7f092cd5b4b2e7f41c46f1ef38ecc351

Newspaper - from a subscription database

In-text

Taylor, 2017 OR (Taylor, 2017)

Reference list

Taylor, P. (2017, December 15). Secret quokka colony joins mainland ratrace. The Australian, 3.

Newspaper - from a database that is free to the public

In-text

Saunders (1998) OR (Saunders, 1998)

Reference list

Saunders, G. (1998, September 29). Doings of Chudleigh and Mole Creek.  Western Tiers, 16. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article213557518

Magazines [10.1]: In the reference list for magazines, include the day and month as well as the year. 

Magazine - online with DOI 

In-text
(Bergeson, 2019) OR Bergeson (2019)

Reference list

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau7988

Magazine - online without DOI 

In-text
(Glasser, 2020) OR Glasser (2020)

Reference list

Glasser, S, B. (2020, January 24). Trolling day at the Trump trial. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/news/letter-from-trumps-washington/trolling-day-at-the-trump-impeachment-trial

Magazine - print 

In-text

(White, 2019) OR White (2019)

Reference list

White, M.J. (2019, July-August). What I've learned about white-collar crime. Harvard Business Review, 58-59.

Missing information

No author [8.14]: When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title enclosed in double quotation marks for in-text citations, and include the full title in place of the author name in the reference list. If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list.

No author

In-text

"Translate 1967 Referendum" (2008) OR ("Translate 1967 Referedum", 2008)

Reference list

Translate 1967 Referendum goodwill into real change. (2008, June 4). Torres News, 17.

Author shown as "Anonymous"

 

No DOI [9.34]:  Where no DOI is given for an electronic resource, do not include a URL or database information in the reference.  Where an electronic article has been found on the internet (i.e. not through a library search), give the full URL to the web page where it was found.

No DOI for journal article

No DOI for newspaper article

 

No date [9.17]: If no date can be found, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date) in place of the date. 

In-text

(Albeck-Ripka, n.d.) OR Albeck-Ripka (n.d.)

Reference list

Albeck-Ripka, L. (n.d.). This is what extinction sounds like. Vicehttps://www.vice.com/en_au/article/paev7v/this-is-what-extinction-sounds-like-v24n5

Using a direct quote from an article with no page numbers [8.28]: If no page numbers are present, you can use paragraph numbers (counted by you from the beginning of the document) or the name of the heading or sub-heading (e.g. "Conclusion"). Enclose the name of the heading in quote marks. Leave the page numbers out of the reference list entry.

In-text (direct quote)

The new era of Open Access publishing has prompted "a new surge of investment, controversy, and relevance across a wide group of stakeholders" (Piwowar et al., 2018, "Introduction," para. 2).

Reference list

Piwowar, H., Priem, J., Larivière, V., Alperin, J. P., Matthias, L., Norlander, B., Farley, A., West, J. & Haustein, S. (2018). The state of OA: A large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of open access articles. PeerJ, 6(4375). https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4375

 

Article with an eLocator or other article number [9.27]: If the article has an article number instead of page numbers, write the word Article (capitalised) then provide the article number instead of the page range.

 

Reference list

Bennett, R., Zorbas, C., Huse, O., Peeters, A., Cameron, A. J., Sacks, G., & Backholer, K. (2020). Prevalence of healthy and unhealthy food and beverage price promotions and their potential influence on shopper purchasing behaviour: A systematic review of the literature. Obesity Reviews, 21(1), Article e12948. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12948

 

Missing Information [9.26]: Usually journals have both a volume and an issue number, however, sometimes one of these might not be provided. Some online-only journals may have neither volume nor issue (this is rare). If you can't find both numbers, just use what you have.

Reference list

Carter, D. (2017). The labor of online product promotion: Barriers to collective action. First Monday, 22, 19-25. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v22i110.8055