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APA Referencing 7th Edition

Overview

This page provides examples for sources that don't fit into standard categories, often called Grey literature [9.21, 10.4]. Specialist materials for certain courses (e.g. Medicine, Nursing, Law) are also included. Have we missed anything? Let us know and we will add an example.

Common resources

Course works [8.6]: University course readers can include lab manuals, workbooks, and collections of articles. Check to see if the course reader is written entirely by the same author(s) or if it is a collection of articles by different authors, edited by someone else. See below for examples.


University course workbook: entire publication

In-text

(Patman, 2017) OR Patman (2017)

Reference list

Patman, S. (2017). PHTY202: Cardiorespiratory physiotherapy sciences 1: Practical sessions workbook. Fremantle, WA: University of Notre Dame Australia.

University course workbook: article in an edited collection

In-text

(Brackenreg, 1998) OR Brackenreg (1998)

Reference list

Brackenreg, M. (1998). Learning from our mistakes - before it is too late. In University of Notre Dame Australia, School of Health Sciences (Ed.), HPPE3205: Outdoor education course reader (pp. 46–54). Fremantle, WA: University of Notre Dame Australia.

PowerPoint slides [10.14]: When the slides are available online to anyone, provide the site name on which they are hosted in the source element of the reference, followed by the URL of the slides. If the slides contain citations to information published elsewhere, and you want to cite that information as well, then it is best to find, read, and cite the original source yourself rather than citing the slides as a secondary source. If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides, cite them as a personal communication.

 

PowerPoint slides - online

In-text

(Malik, 2016) OR Malik (2016)

Reference list

Malik, G. F. (2016). Academic writing and publishing. [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/FareedMalik1/academic-writing-and-and-publishing

 

Lecture slides [10.14]: When the slides have been sourced from an online learning management system (e.g. Blackboard), provide the name of the site and its URL. Use the login page URL for sites requiring login.


Lecture slides: retrieved from Blackboard

In-text

(Hay, 2018) OR Hay (2018)

Reference list

Hay, B. (2018). NURS3020: Understanding research methods in health informatics [PowerPoint slides]. Blackboard. https://learnit.nd.edu.au/

 

Lecture recordings: When the lecture have been accessed using an online learning management system (e.g. Blackboard), provide the name of the site and its URL. Use the login page URL for sites requiring login.. For lectures that are hosted on external platforms such as YouTube or SoundCloud, see the information in the video & audio section of this guide.


Blackboard lecture recording

In-text

(McCall, 2021) OR Patman (2021)

Reference list

McCall, M. (2021, March 13). COMM1060: Week 2 lecture [Lecture recording]. Blackboard. https://learnit.nd.edu.au/

Secondary references [8.6]: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. This is discouraged in scholarly writing. Students should find the original source and interrogate its meaning directly. When an author’s work is presented through someone else’s eyes, it can impose an interpretation and understanding that is held by the second author rather than the meaning intended by the original author. In some cases, the second author may even be debunking the original or looking at it from a completely different perspective, and the variation in context may be missed by you, leading to a serious distortion in meaning,

If you wish to use secondary referencing, contact your lecturer or tutor: if they allow it, then follow the instructions below; if they do not allow it, find a different source for your discussion.

You must make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Drew in the reference list, not Pea.

In-text

Pea (1985 as cited in Drew, 2019) found that... OR (Pea, 1985 as cited in Drew, 2019) OR Drew (2019) describes Pea's research undertaken in 1985...

Reference list

Drew, C. (2019). Re-examining cognitive tools: New developments, new perspectives, and new opportunities for educational technology research. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(2), i-v. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5389

Grey literature

Reports [9.7, 10.4]: Look at the report carefully to determine the author. Reports are often written by organisations or corporate authors. For example, the author of an annual report is usually the organisation that produced it. The author information for a page on an organisation's website or government agency website may be located on the "about us" or acknowledgements page. If you cannot determine the author, treat the report as having no author and follow the rules for no author. Where the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher from the source element. 

Report - online

In-text

(Cancer Council Western Australia, 2019) OR Cancer Council Western Australia (2019)

Reference List

Cancer Council Western Australia. (2019). Finance and governance report. https://www.cancerwa.asn.au/resources/2019-11-04-CCWA-Finance-and-Governance-Report-2018-19.pdf

PDF documents [10.4]: Titles of "standalone" documents (e.g. PDF, Word, PowerPoint, or other document formats) on a website are italicised. Standalone documents in this context are resources that do not fall into standard categories, including reports, presentations, white papers and other grey literature.
If the document is from a task force or working group, capitalise the name, treat it as a proper noun and list it as a group author. If the report lists the name of individuals on the cover page or title page of the work treat the reference  as having individual authors, and include the name of the group as the publisher.

PDF (or standalone document) found on website

In-text

(Government of Western Australia, Department of Health, 2020) OR Government of Western Australia, Department of Health (2020)

Reference list

Government of Western Australia, Department of Health. (2020, 23 March). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Frequently asked questions. https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/~/media/Files/Corporate/general%20documents/Infectious%20diseases/PDF/Coronavirus/coronavirus-faqs.pdf​

Government documents [9.10, 9.11,10.4]: When a number of government agencies are listed as the author, use the  most specific organisation responsible for the report as the author in the reference. The name of the parent organisation appears in the reference as the publisher. Organisations listed as the author are not listed again as the publisher. 
If the document is a report from a task force or working group, capitalise the name, treat it as a proper noun and list it as a group author. If the report lists the name of individuals on the cover page or title page of the work treat the reference  as having individual authors, and include the name of the group as the publisher.


Government website

In-text

(Corruption and Crime Commission, 2018) OR Corruption and Crime Commission (2018)

Reference list

Corruption and Crime Commission. (2018, 21 March). Review of police response to an incident in a country town where excessive force was used and an arrested person's details not recorded. Government of Western Australia. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-627375476​

Government report

First in-text citation

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2010) OR Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2010)

Subsequent in-text citations

(AIHW, 2010) OR AIHW (2010)

Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2010). 2010 pandemic vaccination survey: Summary results (Cat. No. PHE 128). https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/health-care-quality-performance/2010-pandemic-vaccination-survey-summary-results/contents/summary

Theses and dissertations [9.30, 10.6]: How theses and dissertations are referenced depends upon whether it is an published or unpublished document. Published theses are usually in an electronic format in a database such as ProQuest or a university repository or personal website. Unpublished theses are usually only available in print form. 

Published theses held in a database or electronically: Use the following format to reference an published theses: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or theses (Publication number or accession number if provided) [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of Institution awarding the degree]. Database name. URL address beginning https://xxxx
Unpublished printed theses: Treat a printed dissertation or thesis as a book. A reference to an unpublished printed dissertation or thesis should include the following elements: Author, A. A. (Year). Title [type of thesis or dissertation]. Name of Institution.


Theses & dissertations - from database

In-text

(Buxton, 2020) OR Buxton (2020)

Reference list

Buxton, L. (2020). Yurunnhang Bungil Nyumba: Infusing Aboriginal ways of being into teaching practice in Australia [Doctor of Education, University of Notre Dame Australia]. ResearchOnline@ND. https://researchonline.nd.edu.au/theses/248/

Theses & dissertations - print

In-text

(Gavranich, 2011) OR Gavranich (2011)

Reference list

Gavranich, P. (2011). Perspectives of women in leadership roles: Working through the change [Postgraduate thesis]. University of Notre Dame Australia.

Conferences and works with specific locations [9.31, 10.5]: Conference sessions and presentations include paper presentations, keynote addresses and symposium contributions. Meetings and seminars may be published in different formats and the reference should follow the style for the format used. Include a label in square brackets after the title that matches how the presentation was described at the conference. Include all authors listed as contributing to the presentation even if not physically present at the conference. Conference presentations should include the location: provide the city and state/province/territory as well as the country. Give the full date range of the conference, including month and year to help with retrieval.
Published:  If the proceedings are published as a separate book, use the style for a chapter in a book. If the proceedings are published annually as a journal, use the style for journal articles .
Online: If the proceedings are available
online (not in an online journal or eBook), use the following format: Presenter/Contributor, A. A., & Presenter/Contributor, B. B. (Year, Month, date of conference). Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. https://doi.org/xxxx or https://xxxx

Conference proceedings - published

In-text

(Baxter et al., 2018) OR Baxter et al. (2018)

Reference list

Baxter, G., Finch, N., & Murray, P. (Eds.). (2018, August 30-September 1). Advances in conservation through sustainable use of wildlife: Proceedings of a conference held in Brisbane, Australia. University of Queensland.

Conference paper presentation - online

In-text

(Klimenko et al., 2019) OR Klimenko et al. (2019)

Reference list

Klimenko, V., Tereshin, A., & Mikushina, O. (2019, January). Increase of energy potential of Russian forest resources due to climate change and CO2 fertilization. [Conference proceeding]. E3S Web of Conferences. https://doi:10.1051/e3sconf/201910302005

Brochures, pamphlets or flyers [10.4]: follow the same format as report references. Include the appropriate description “[Brochure]” in square brackets after the title of the item. Provide as much information as needed for the reader to locate the original source of the material.

Pamphlets and Brochures 

In-text

(Australian Government, Department of Health 2020) OR Australian Government, Department of Health (2020)

Reference list

Australian Government, Department of Health (2020, 6 March). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Information for universities, higher education and vocational education facilities, their students and staff [Fact sheet version 10]. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/coronavirus-covid-19-information-for-universities-higher-education-and-vocational-education-facilities

Posters

In-text

(Australian Government, Department of Health 2020) OR Australian Government, Department of Health (2020)

Reference list

Australian Government, Department of Health (2020, 2 March).  Coronavirus (COVID-19): Know the signs [Poster]https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/coronavirus-covid-19-know-the-signs

Australian Bureau of Statistics document

First in-text citation

(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2018) OR Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2018)

Subsequent in-text citation

(ABS, 2018) OR ABS (2018)

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Marriages and divorces, Australia, 2018 (Cat. No. 3310.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3310.0

Data set - with DOI

In-text

(Grigg, 2006) OR Grigg (2006)

Reference list

Grigg, G.C. (2006). Red kangaroo counts [Data set]. https://doi.org/10.14264/uql.2014.170

Data set - without DOI

In-text

(Australian Health Policy Collaboration, 2017) OR Australian Health Policy Collaboration (2017)

Reference list

Australian Health Policy Collaboration (2017). Australia's Health Tracker Atlas: Data by Population Health Area (PHA) [Data set]. http://www.atlasesaustralia.com.au/ahpc/data.html

Preprints [10.8]: Preprints are manuscripts published ahead of peer review. This is increasingly common in the medical and biological sciences, allowing for rapid feedback and reporting on findings.  Preprints can be find in dedicated repositories as well as some journals. Refer to the final published version of the source you have used. Include the DOI or URL, whichever is available.

 

In-text

(Tillman, 2020) OR Tillman (2020)

Reference list

Tillman, G. (2020). Disordered social media use and fear of COVID-19 and the association with stress and depression. PsyArxiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dbg62

Specialist subject material

Legislation: Include the "short title" of the Act (as specified in Section 1 of the Act), and the relevant jurisdictional notation.
Cases: For more information on Case citation elements, see AGLC Cases and for Legislation see AGLC Legislation


Legislation (Acts)

In-text

(Coronavirus Economic Response Package Omnibus Act No. 22, 2020) OR Coronavirus Economic Response Package Omnibus Act No. 22 (2020)

Reference list

Coronavirus Economic Response Package Omnibus Act No. 22. Government of Australia. 2020. ​https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020A00022

Cases

In-text

(Malouf v AME Properties [2007]) OR Malouf v AME Properties [2007]

Reference list

Malouf v AME Properties Pty Ltd [2007] FCA 1616.

AusDI [9.34] [10.1]:

Place the drug name in quotation marks. Include a retrieval date and the URL of the database. See the following example for guidance: 
"Drug name" (Year). Database name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of database. 

In-text

("Panadeine Forte", n.d.) OR "Panadeine Forte" (n.d.)

Reference list

Panadeine Forte. (n.d.). AusDI. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from https://www.ausdi.com

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH) [9.34] [10.1]:

Place the drug name in quotation marks. Include a retrieval date and the URL of the database. See the following example for guidance: 
"Drug name" (Year). Database name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of database. 

In-text

(“Paracetamol”, 2020) OR “Paracetamol” (2020)

Reference list

Paracetamol. (2020). AMH: Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from https://www.amh.net.au

BMJ Best Practice [9.34] [10.1]:

Authors are listed at the end of each article PDF. Use the year of last update in the date element. Include a retrieval date and the URL of the article. See the following example for guidance: 
Author, A.A. (Year of last update). Title of entry. Database name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of article.

In-text

(Barnett, 2020) OR Barnett (2020)

Reference list

Barnett, E. (2020). Measles infection. BMJ Best Practice. Retrieved April 20, 2020 from https://bestpractice.bmj.com

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [10.1]:

Treat articles from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews like an online journal. Do not include an issue number or pages. Include a DOI.

In-text

(Loetscher et al.,  2019) OR Loetscher et al. (2019)

Reference list

Loetscher, T., Potter, K. J., Wong, D., & das Nair, R. (2019). Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002842.pub3 

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 [10.2]:

It is common to identify the title and edition of a diagnostic manual for the first in-text citation. Include a DOI for the reference list entry.

First in-text citation

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

OR

American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)

Subsequent in-text citations

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013) OR American Psychiatric Association (2013) 

Reference list

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 

eTG Complete [9.34] [10.1]:

Place the therapeutic guideline in quotation marks. Use the year of last update in the date element. Also include a retrieval date and the URL of the database. See the following example for guidance: 
"Therapeutic guideline" (Year). eTG Complete. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of database.

In-text

("Lyme disease", 2019) OR "Lyme disease" (2019)

Reference list

Lyme disease. (2019). eTG Complete. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from https://www.tg.org.au

JBI CONnNECT+ [10.1]:

All JBI publications are cited in a conventional manner with originating authors. List the publication type in square brackets. If there is no author listed, cite The Joanna Briggs Institute as the author. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of database.

In-text

(Picot, 2020) OR Picot (2020)

Reference list

Picot, E. (2020). Cellulitis: Management [Recommended practice sheet]. The Joanna Briggs Institute. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/

UptoDate [10.1]:

Authors are listed at the top of each article. Use the year of last update in the date element. Include a retrieval date and the URL of the article. See the following example for guidance:
Author, A.A. (Year of last update). Title of entry. Database name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL of article.

In-text

(Perreault, 2019) OR Perreault (2019)

Reference list

Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UptoDate. Retrieved April 17, 2020 from https://uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-adults-role-of-physical-activity-and-exercise

Encyclopaedias and dictionaries [10.2]: Encyclopaedias and dictionaries are formatted similarly to chapters in edited books but without page numbers. If there is no author listed for the individual entry, list the title of the entry in place of the author, and enclose the entry name in quotation marks for the in-text reference.

Online encyclopaedia

In-text

(Fiala, 2018) OR Fiala (2018)

Reference list

Fiala, A. (2018). Pacifism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2018 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/pacifism/

Print encyclopaedia

In-text
("Causality," 2001) OR "Causality" (2001)

Reference list

Causality. (2001). In J. M. Last (Ed.). A dictionary of epidemiology (4th ed., p. 26). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Online dictionary

In-text

("Ethnography," 2004) OR "Ethnography" (2004)

Reference list

Ethnography. (2004). In C. Barker, The SAGE dictionary of cultural studies. http://www.credoreference.com

Print dictionary

In-text

("Baroque", 2004) OR "Baroque" (2004)

Reference list

Baroque. (2004). In B Moore (Ed.).  The Australian concise Oxford dictionary (4th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.