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APA Referencing

Main elements

printed book example

Authors

Books: For in-text citations give only the last name of the author. In the reference list put the last name of the author followed by their initials.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book

In-text

(Williams, 2007) OR Williams (2007)

Reference list

Williams, D. (2007). Communication skills in practice: A practical guide for health professionals. London, United Kingdom: J. Kingsley.

eBook

eBooks: Do not include place of publication or publisher. Instead use the homepage URL of the online library, with a retrieval statement. Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOIs section below for more information.

In-text

(Surette, 2014) OR Surette (2014)

Reference list

Surette, L. (2014). The birth of modernism: Ezra Pound, T.S Eliot, W.B. Yeats, and the occult. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Two authors: Give both names with "and" between them if you use the names in a sentence but put "&" between the names if they are enclosed in parentheses. Always use "&" in the reference list.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book

In-text

(Remley & Herlihy, 2011) OR Remley and Herlihy (2011)

Reference list

Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2011). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling. Chicago, IL: Peacock.

eBook

eBooks: Do not include place of publication or publisher. Instead use the homepage URL of the online library, with a retrieval statement. Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOIs section below for more information.

In-text

(Galvan & Galvan, 2017) OR Galvan and Galvan (2017)

Reference list

Galvan, J. L., & Galvan, M. C. (2017). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Three to five authors: Give all names in the first in-text citation but only the first name followed by "et al." for subsequent citations. Give the names of all the authors in the reference list and put “&” before the last author's name.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book

First in-text citation

(Campbell, Campbell, & Dickinson, 2004) OR Campbell, Campbell, and Dickinson (2004)

Subsequent in-text citations

(Campbell et al., 2004) OR Campbell et al. (2004)

Reference list

Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (2004). Teaching and learning through multiple intelligences (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

eBook

eBooks: Do not include place of publication or publisher. Instead use the homepage URL of the online library, with a retrieval statement. Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOIs section below for more information.

First in-text citation

(Humberstone, Prince, & Henderson, 2015) OR Humberstone, Prince, and Henderson (2015)

Subsequent in-text citations

(Humberstone et al., 2015) OR Humberstone et al. (2015)

Reference list

Humberstone, B., Prince, H., & Henderson, K. A. (Eds.). (2015). Routledge international handbook of outdoor studies. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Six or seven authors: Give the name of the first named author only followed by "et al." for in-text citations. Give the names of all the authors in the reference list and put “&” before the last author's name.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book

In-text

(Harrison et al., 1999) OR Harrison et al. (1999)

Reference list

Harrison, G., Woods, R., Morrison, J., Zappa, F., Lennon, J., & Wright, S. (1999). Group dynamics. London, United Kingdom: Record Press.

eBook

eBooks: Do not include place of publication or publisher. Instead use the homepage URL of the online library, with a retrieval statement. Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOIs section below for more information.

In-text

(Amarelli et al., 2017) OR Amarelli et al., (2015)

Reference list

Amarelli, C., Montalto, A., Loforte, A., Musumeci, F., Krabatsch, T., & Slaughter, M. (Eds.). (2017). Mechanical circulatory support in end-stage heart failure: A practical manual. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/

Eight or more authors: Give the name of the first named author only followed by "et al." for in-text citations. List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (...) and add the last author's name in the reference list.
Edited Books or eBooks: if the author(s) are listed as "editor(s)", add the term (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the author name(s).

Book

In-text

(Henry et al., 2010) OR Henry et al. (2010)

Reference list

Henry, G. L., Little, N., Jagoda, A., Pellegrino, T. Y., Quint, D. J., Alberstone, C. D., ... Kanasz, N. (2010). Neurological emergencies. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

eBook

eBooks: Do not include place of publication or publisher. Instead use the homepage URL of the online library, with a retrieval statement. Always include a DOI if one is available. See the DOIs section below for more information.

In-text

(Merkel et al., 2015) OR Merkel et al., (2015)

Reference list

Merkel, R., Boer, G., Fegert, J., Galert, T., Hartmann, D., Nuttin, B., . . . Rosahl, S. (2015). Intervening in the brain: Changing psyche and society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-46477-8

Chapters in edited books: Include the names of the chapter author as well as the editor(s) of the book. Be sure to also include the page range of the chapter itself.

Chapter in edited Book

In-text
(Elias, 1999) OR Elias (1999)

Reference list

Elias, M. (1999). Social decision making and problem solving: Essential skills for interpersonal and academic success. In J. Cohen (Ed.), Educating minds and hearts: Social emotional learning and the passage into adolescence (pp. 74-94). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Chapter in edited eBook

In-text

(Wildburger, 2014) OR Wildburger (2014)

Reference list

Wildburger, E. (2014). The 'cultural design' of Western Australian art. In B. Neumaier, K. Schaffer & K. Althans (Eds.), Decolonizing the landscape: Indigenous cultures in Australia (pp. 71-86). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Organisation or corporate author: If an organisation (i.e. company, institution, government body, religious organisation or other type of organisation) is the author, use the organisation’s name in place of an individual's name. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

Two authors with the same surname: Use the authors' initials in all citations.

Secondary references: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. Always try to locate the original source rather than using a secondary reference. If you’re unable to trace the original, make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Bate in the reference list, not Somekh.

In-text

Somekh (as cited in Bate, 2010) found that... OR (Somekh as cited in Bate, 2010) OR Bate (2010) describes Somekh's recent research on...

Reference list

Bate, F. (2010). A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers' use of ICT in Australian schools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 1042-1061. doi:10.14742/ajet.1033

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Publishers and place of publication

When writing the publisher name, do not include abbreviations such as Ltd., Inc., Co., etc. Retain the words Books and Press, if applicable.
How do I include the place of publication?: For materials published in the United States or Australia, include the city and the postal code abbreviation for the state, e.g. San Diego, CA or Fremantle, WA. You do not need to include the name of the country if it is American or Australian.
For references with locations that are not from the United States or Australia, include the name of the city and the country.

Australian location

Reference list

Lydon, J. (2014). Calling the shots: Aboriginal photographies. Canberra, ACT: Aboriginal Studies Press.

 

American location

Reference list

Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2011). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling. Chicago, IL: Peacock.

 

Other country location

Reference list

Harrison, G., Woods, R., Morrison, J., Zappa, F., Lennon, J., & Wright, S. (1999). Group dynamics. London, United Kingdom: Record Press.

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DOI

DOI: When giving a reference to a book in electronic format, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if it is shown on the item, indicated in a database record for the item, or found through the crossref.org lookup form (http://www.crossref.org/guestquery). Do not include the publisher details. The DOI is a unique code assigned to electronic sources that can be used to find references. Do not put a full stop or other punctuation after a DOI, and there should be no spaces.

The DOI can appear in any of the following formats:
1.  doi:10.1111/j.0013-2004.2005.00001.x
2.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-2004.2005.00001.x

3.  https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014          

Any of these formats can be used, but the format you choose must be used consistently throughout the reference list. Note: you may have to type "doi:" before the number when constructing the first format example above; or type http://dx.doi.org/ or https://doi.org/ before the number for the other two formats.

eBook with a DOI

Reference list

Rupert, R. D. (2009). Cognitive systems and the extended mind. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379457.001.0001

No DOI: Where no DOI is given for an eBook, provide the internet address (also known as the URL) to the homepage of the online platform that hosts the eBook. The examples below are for the most commonly found eBook types at Notre Dame. Where an electronic article has been found on the internet (i.e. not through a library search), give the full URL to the web page where it was found.

eBook with no DOI (Ebook Central)

Reference list

Ward, S. (2004). Planning and urban change (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

eBook with no DOI (Ebsco)

Reference list

Artemis, T. (2013). Internet addiction: A public health concern in adolescence. Retrieved from https://www.ebscohost.com

 

Finding a DOI: There are a few ways to find a DOI for journals, eBooks and other sources:

1. Look at the source to find the DOI. For journals, look at the first page of the article. For eBooks, look for any book details on the web page that hosts the eBook.

2. Search for the title of the item on the Crossref Metadata Search. The DOI will usually display under each item result.

3. In Summon search results, you can sometimes find the DOI by clicking on the Preview link.

If you cannot find a DOI through any of these methods, it is possible that the item does not have a DOI. If this is the case, just follow the examples listed under No DOI on either the Books & eBooks or the Journals, Newspapers and Magazines pages.

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Missing information

Using a direct quote from a book with no page numbers: If no page numbers are present, you can use paragraph numbers (counted by you from the beginning of the document), the name of the heading or sub-heading (e.g. "Conclusion"), or a combination of both (paragraph number counted from the beginning of the heading or sub-heading) to identify the place in the article. Enclose the name of the heading in quote marks. Leave the page numbers out of the reference list entry.

 

In-text (direct quote):

Campaigners for woman suffrage emphasised that women would have a "purifying influence on politics and society" (Fox, 2011, "Antipodean Feminist Movements", para. 1).

Reference List:

Fox, K. (2011). Māori and Aboriginal women in the public eye: Representing difference, 1950-2000. doi:10.26530/OAPEN_459367

 

No DOI: If there is no DOI for an eBook, give the internet address (also known as the URL) to the homepage of the online platform that hosts the eBook, along with a retrieval statement. The examples below are for the most commonly found eBook types at Notre Dame.

eBook with no DOI (Ebook Central)

Reference list

Ward, S. (2004). Planning and urban change (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

eBook with no DOI (Ebsco)

Reference list

Artemis, T. (2013). Internet addiction: A public health concern in adolescence. Retrieved from https://www.ebscohost.com

 

No date: If no date can be found, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date) in place of the date. If no date is available but it is possible to estimate it, use "ca." (abbreviation of circa) followed by the estimated year of publication.

In-text

(Weber, n.d.) OR Weber (n.d.)

Reference list

Weber, C. (n.d.). Romanticism and parenting: Image, instruction and ideology. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

No author:  When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title in italics for the in-text citation, and begin the reference in the reference list with the title. If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list.

Book with no author

In-text

(Fluids & electrolytes, 2002) OR Fluids & electrolytes (2002)

Reference list

Fluids & electrolytes made incredibly easy. (2002). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse.

No edition: Only include an edition number if the book is the 2nd edition or later. If there has only been one edition of the book, there is no need to include the edition number. 

Speght, R., & Lewalski, B. K. (1996). The polemics and poems of Rachel Speght. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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