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APA Referencing 6th Edition

Changes to APA Referencing Style

From Semester 2, 2020, all Notre Dame staff and students will be required to adopt
the APA 7th edition publication and referencing style for coursework.*

The new APA 7th referencing guide can be found here.

*The APA 6th referencing guide will remain available online until 18 December 2020 for postgraduates and researchers. 
Please remember to update saved links and bookmarks.


Terminology - figures, images, tables: Tables usually show numerical values or text arranged in columns or rows. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure, for instance: charts, graphs, photographs or drawings. The terms figure and image are used interchangeably on this page.
Permissions: For university coursework, you generally do not need to ask the author for permission to use the image - only a reference is needed. If you are publishing your work, or using images for non-educational purposes, see our Copyright Guide page on using images.

Referencing images

Table or figure - from a website

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 5. Red maple tree at Winkworth Arboretum in Surrey (Warby, 2010).

Reference list

Warby, W. (2010). Maple tree [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Table or figure - from a book

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 1. Heart rates and aerobic exercise (Mescher, 2010, p. 341).

Reference list

Mescher, A. L. (2010). Junqueira’s basic histology text and atlas (12th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Table or figure - from an eBook

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 2. The Accolade by Edmund Leighton, oil on canvas, painted 1901 ( De La Sizeranne, 2012, p. 249).

Reference list

De La Sizeranne, R. (2012). The pre-Raphaelites. Retrieved from

Table or figure - from a journal article with a DOI

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 3. Changes in men's and women's marathon running times with advancing age (Tanaka & Seals, 2008, p.56).

Reference list

Tanaka, H, & Seals, D. R. (2008). Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: Age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. Journal of Physiology, 586(1), 55-63. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879

Table or figure - from a government document

In-text (under displayed image)

Figure 4. Australian smokers, aged 18 years or over, 1989-2008 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009, p. 1).

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Australian social trends, December 2009 (No. 4102.0). Retrieved from 4102.0Main+Features30Dec+2009

Displaying images in a written work (essay, report etc): When you display an image in your work, you need to label it, and provide an in-text citation, as well as include a reference list entry for it. Number the image in the order it appears in your work (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc) and include a descriptive label along with an author-date in-text citation and a page number (if applicable). Please see the other tabs in this box for examples of how to reference images from a variety of sources.


The example below shows how a figure can be displayed within the text of your document. Check with your lecturer to determine their preferences for displaying figures.



Displaying images in a presentation (Powerpoint, poster, etc): You may choose to include the full reference at the bottom of each slide, or an in-text reference within each slide combined with a full reference list at the end. Consult your lecturer or supervisor for guidance on how best to display references in your presentation.

Referencing images without displaying them

If you are discussing an image in your work, but not including the actual image, use the same approach as you would for any typical reference by including the author and date of publication in-text (including page numbers where possible), and a full reference list entry in the format appropriate for the source you found the image in (book, website, etc).

This romantic view of chivalry is also present in The Accolade (De La Sizeranne, 2012, p. 25), a prominent pre-Raphaelite painting.

Reference list

De La Sizeranne, R. (2012). The pre-Raphaelites. Retrieved from

Displaying original images (created by you)

How do I reference an image (or table or figure) I created?: If you created the image (this is usually the case when you are displaying your own data that you have compiled in a graph or chart, or your own photograph), you do not need to reference it, but the image must be clearly labeled. See below for examples.

Figure 1. Nursing undergraduate students by age.

Figures: Place label directly below, with the word “Figure” and the number in italics, e.g. Figure 1.
Tables: Number tables in the order they are mentioned in the text: Table 1, Table 2, etc. Give each table a title (which is placed above the table), use descriptive headings and give table notes directly below the table if explanation of abbreviations, symbols or features is needed.

APA Table format