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APA Referencing

Overview

Paraphrasing, summarising, or quoting are all ways that you can incorporate other people's ideas into your work. Use an in-text reference to indicate where those ideas have come from. The two main components of an in-text reference when paraphrasing and summarising are the author name(s) and the date. If you are directly quoting from the source, you must also include the page number, and enclose the quote in double quotation marks.
For more information, see the section on paraphrasing, summarising, and quoting in the Successful Academic Writing guide.

In-text citations

quotation example

Short quotations: A short quotation (up to 40 words) is incorporated into your text and is enclosed in double quotation marks (“ ”). Always indicate the page number(s) (or paragraph number if there are no page numbers) after a quote.

 

Cole (2008) states that “brain-based research has influenced the way that curriculum and teaching is conceived” (p. 23).

OR

Poverty is defined as “sustained periods of limited access to basic resources” (Smith, 2012, p. 13).

 

Long quotations: A long quotation of more than 40 words is presented in a block of text that is indented five to seven spaces from the left margin. No quotation marks are used.

 

Gardner (1994) writes:

Different disciplines call on different analytic styles, approaches to problem solving and findings, temperaments, and intelligences. Therefore, a keen assessment must be alert for these disciplinary differences. By the same token, an effective teacher should help youngsters to appreciate that what counts as cause and effect, data and explanation, use of language and argument, varies across the disciplines (p. 18).

If the author's name and date are not given before the quote:

Different disciplines call on different analytic styles, approaches to problem solving and findings, temperaments, and intelligences. Therefore, a keen assessment must be alert for these disciplinary differences. By the same token, an effective teacher should help youngsters to appreciate that what counts as cause and effect, data and explanation, use of language and argument, varies across the disciplines (Gardner, 1994, p. 18).

paraphrasing example

Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing is when you read a text and write the main point(s) of it in your own words.

 

While many students found that grades were important, not all considered them a meaningful measure of success at university (Picton, Kahu, & Nelson, 2018).

Sometimes you may need to reference more than one source in a set of parentheses, as several sources have made the same claim or had the same idea. If this is the case, enclose all the in-text references in the same set of parentheses in alphabetical order, and separate each set with a semicolon.

 

This theory has been disproved by others, who claim that the sky is not always blue (Barnes & Seung, 2005; Chan, 2008; Kimberley, 2006).

Secondary references: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. Always try to locate the original source rather than using a secondary reference. If you’re unable to trace the original, make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Bate in the reference list, not Somekh.

 

In-Text

Somekh (as cited in Bate, 2010) found that... OR (Somekh as cited in Bate, 2010) OR Bate (2010) describes Somekh's recent research on...

Reference list

Bate, F. (2010). A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers' use of ICT in Australian schools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 1042-1061. doi:10.14742/ajet.1033

 

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