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APA Referencing

Main elements

diagram of a journal article reference

Authors

One author: For in-text citations give only the last name of the author. In the reference list put the last name of the author followed by their initial(s).

In-text

Beyer (2008) OR (Beyer, 2008)

Reference list

Beyer, B. K. (2008). How to teach thinking skills in social studies and history. The Social Studies, 99(5), 196-201. doi:10.3200/TSSS.99.5.196-201

Two authors: Give both names with "and" between them if you use the names in a sentence but put "&" between the names if they are enclosed in parentheses. Always use "&" in the reference list.

In-text

Gal-Or and Giesen (2007) OR (Gal-Or & Giesen, 2007)

Reference list

Gal-Or, N., & Giesen, K. (2007). The concept of war. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 19(2), 149-156. doi:10.1080/10402650701353240

First in-text citation

MacKenzie, Byles, and D'Este (2006) OR (MacKenzie, Byles, & D'Este, 2006)

Subsequent in-text citations

MacKenzie et al. (2006) OR (MacKenzie et al., 2006)

Reference list

MacKenzie, L., Byles, J., & D’Este, C. (2006). Validation of self-reported fall events in intervention studies. Clinical Rehabilitation, 20(4), 331-339. doi:10.1191/0269215506cr947oa

In-text

Motevalli et al. (2013) OR (Motevalli et al., 2013)

Reference list

Motevalli, S., Roslan, S. B., Sulaiman, T,, Hamzah, S. G., Hassan, N. C., & Garmajani, M. G. (2013). New study skills training intervention for students who suffer from test anxiety. Asian Social Science, 9(7), 85-96. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n7p85

In-text

Lyman et al. (2014) OR (Lyman et al., 2014)

Reference list

Lyman, D. R., Kurtz, M. M., Farkas, M., George, P., Dougherty, R. H., Daniels, A. S. ... Delphin-Rittmon, M. E. (2014). Skill building: Assessing the evidence. Psychiatric Services, 65(6), 727-738. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201300251

Organisation or corporate author: If an organisation (i.e. company, institution, government body, religious organisation, or other type of organisation) is the author, use the organisation’s name in place of an individual's name. If the organisation’s name is commonly abbreviated, use the full name in the first reference together with the abbreviation. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.

First in-text citation

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] (2009) OR (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2009)

Subsequent in-text citations

UNESCO (2009) OR (UNESCO, 2009)

Reference list

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2009). UNESCO intersectoral strategy on philosophy. Diogenes, 56(4), 95-100. doi:10.1177/0392192109355525

No author: When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title enclosed in double quotation marks for in-text citations, and include the full title in place of the author name in the reference list. If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list.

No author - journal article

In-text

"What role" (2014) OR ("What role", 2014)

Reference list

What role can physical education play in deterring violence in our society? (2014). Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(6), 49-51. doi:10.1080/07303084.2014.927685

Author shown as "Anonymous"

In-text

(Anonymous, 2013)

Reference list

Anonymous. (2013). Dealing with the unpredictable. The Clinical Teacher, 10(6), 409-410. doi:10.1111/tct12068

Two authors with the same surname: Use the authors' initials in all citations.

In-text
J. J. Smith (2004) contradicts R. A. Smith (1999)

More than one work by the same author in the same year: Identify each source with a letter (a, b, c, etc.) after the year in both the in-text reference and your reference list. The letters follow the order in which the references appear in your reference list.
Secondary references: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. Always try to locate the original source rather than using a secondary reference. If you’re unable to trace the original, make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Bate in the reference list, not Somekh.

In-text

Somekh (as cited in Bate, 2010) found that... OR Bate (2010) describes Somekh's recent research on...

Reference list

Bate, F. (2010). A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers' use of ICT in Australian schools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 1042-1061. doi:10.14742/ajet.1033

 

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DOI

DOI: When citing electronic sources, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if it is shown on the item, indicated in a database record for the item, or found through the crossref.org lookup form (http://www.crossref.org/guestquery). The DOI is a unique code assigned to electronic sources that can be used to find references. Do not put a full stop or other punctuation after a DOI, and there should be no spaces.

The DOI can appear in any of the following formats:
1.  doi:10.1111/j.0013-2004.2005.00001.x
2.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-2004.2005.00001.x

3.  https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014          

Any of these formats can be used, but the format you choose must be used consistently throughout the reference list. Note: you may have to type "doi:" before the number when constructing the first format example above; or type http://dx.doi.org/ or https://doi.org/ before the number for the other two formats.

 

No DOI:  Where no DOI is given for an electronic source, the homepage of that source needs to be provided: for an article, this would be the journal's homepage internet address (or URL). It is not usually necessary to indicate the name of a database in a citation. Where an electronic article has been found on the internet (ie not through a library search), give the full URL to the web page where it was found.

No DOI for journal article

No DOI for newspaper article

Finding a DOI: There are a few ways to find a DOI for journals, eBooks and other sources:

1. Look at the source to find the DOI. For journals, look at the first page of the article. For eBooks, look for any book details on the web page that hosts the eBook.

2. Search for the title of the item on the Crossref Metadata Search. The DOI will usually display under each item result.

3. In Summon search results, you can sometimes find the DOI by clicking on the Preview link.

If you cannot find a DOI through any of these methods, it is possible that the item does not have a DOI. If this is the case, just follow the examples listed under No DOI on either the Books & eBooks or the Journals, Newspapers and Magazines pages.

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Newspapers and magazines

Newspaper - online

In-text

Allard and Skehan (2006) OR (Allard & Skehan, 2006)

Reference list

Allard, T., & Skehan, C. (2006, April 14). Tough luck for the boat people who reach land. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au

Newspaper - print

In-text

Grant (2017) OR (Grant, 2017)

Reference list

Grant, E. (2017, 25 March). West End "insanity". Fremantle Herald, p. 1.

Magazine - online

In-text
Brookhart and Moss (2013) OR (Brookhart & Moss, 2013)

Reference list

Brookhart, S. M., & Moss, C. M. (2013, May). Leading by learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(8), 13-17. Retrieved from http://www.kappanmagazine.org

Magazine - print

In-text

(Petrusich, 2018) OR Petrusich (2018)

Reference list

Petrusich, A. (2018, June 25). Prince's lonely palace. The New Yorker, 24-27.

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Missing information

No author: When no author is given (i.e. neither a person or organisation), use the first few words of the title enclosed in double quotation marks for in-text citations, and include the full title in place of the author name in the reference list. If an author's name is shown as "Anonymous", give Anonymous as the author's name both in-text and in the reference list.

No author

In-text
"What role" (2014) OR ("What role", 2014)

Reference list

What role can physical education play in deterring violence in our society? (2014). Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(6), 49-51. doi:10.1080/07303084.2014.927685

Author shown as "Anonymous"

 

No DOI:  Where no DOI is given for an electronic source, give the internet address (also known as the URL) to the home page of the journal, book or report publisher. It is not usually necessary to indicate the name of a database in a citation. Where an article has been found on the internet, give the full URL to the web page where it was found.

No DOI for journal article

No DOI for newspaper article

 

No date: If no date can be found, use the abbreviation "n.d." (no date) in place of the date. If no date is available but it is possible to estimate it, use "ca." (abbreviation of circa) followed by the estimated year of publication.

In-text

(Albeck-Ripka, n.d.) OR Albeck-Ripka (n.d.)

Reference list

Albeck-Ripka, L. (n.d.). This is what extinction sounds like. Vice. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_au/article/paev7v/this-is-what-extinction-sounds-like-v24n5

Using a direct quote from an article with no page numbers: If no page numbers are present, you can use paragraph numbers (counted by you), the name of the heading or sub-heading (e.g. "Conclusion"), or a combination of both to identify the place in the article. Enclose the name of the heading in quote marks. Leave the page numbers out of the reference list entry.

In-text (direct quote)

Employees who would  prefer to stand in meetings are often worried about being seen as "an attention seeker" (Mansfield et al., 2018, "Theme 3," para. 2).

Reference list

Mansfield, L., Hall, J., Smith, L., Rasch, M., Reeves, E., Dewitt, S., & Gardner, B. (2018). “Could you sit down please?” A qualitative analysis of employees’ experiences of standing in normally-seated workplace meetings. Plos One, 13(6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198483

Usually journals have both a volume and an issue number, however, sometimes one of these might not be provided. Some online-only journals may have neither volume nor issue (this is rare). If you can't find both numbers, just use what you have.

Reference list

Carter, D. (2017). The labor of online product promotion: Barriers to collective action. First Monday, 22, 19-25. doi:10.5210/fm.v22i110.8055

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