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APA Referencing

Main elements

This page provides examples for sources that don't fit into standard categories, often called grey literature. Specialist materials for certain courses (e.g. Medicine, Nursing, Law) are also included. Have we missed anything? Let us know and we will add an example.

Grey literature

Look at the report carefully to determine the author. Reports are often written by organisations or corporate authors.

Report - online

Bankwest. (2018). Bankwest future of business: Focus on childcare 2018. Retrieved from https://www.bankwest.com.au/content/dam/bankwest/documents/business/insights/focus-on-childcare-2018.pdf

Government document found on website

In-text

(Department of Education, 2017) OR Department of Education (2017)

Reference list

Department of Education. (2017). Final report 2016-17. Retrieved from https://www.education.wa.edu.au/documents/32706620/0/Annual+Report+2016-17+-+Final+-+With+addendum+changes.pdf

Electronic: If a thesis has been retrieved from a database (usually an institutional repository), indicate the database and give any accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the reference. The name and location of the institution is not included.
Print: Treat a printed dissertation or thesis as a book. A reference to an unpublished printed dissertation or thesis should include the following elements: Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle(type of thesis or dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Theses & dissertations - from database

In-text

(Hackett, 2006) OR Hackett (2006)

Reference list

Hackett, C. B. (2006). A longitudinal study of the personal and professional responses of recently assigned secondary religious education teachers to curriculum demands (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ResearchOnline@ND database.

Theses & dissertations - print

In-text

(Chivers, 2010) OR Chivers (2010)

Reference list

Chivers, P. (2010). Individual, behavioural and environmental pathways to adolescent obesity, (Doctoral dissertation). University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, WA.

Papers at conferences, symposia, meetings and seminars may be published in different formats and the reference should follow the style for the format used. Give the month of the conference as well as the year.
Published:  If the proceedings are published as a separate book, use the style for a chapter in a book. If the proceedings are published annually as a journal, use the style for journal articles .
Unpublished: If the proceedings are available
online (not in an online journal or eBook), include the name of the conference in italics, as well as the URL for the document and a retrieval statement. If the paper was collected in print form (e.g. a handout collected at the conference) give the name and location of the conference in a description at the end of the reference. 

Conference proceedings - online

In-text

(Patterson, 2005) OR Patterson (2005)

Reference list

Patterson, S. (2005, March). Multiple partners for mental health. Proceedings of the 8th National Rural Health Conference. Retrieved from http://ruralhealth.org.au/8thNRHC/Program.htm

Conference paper presentation - unpublished

In-text

(Zwolinski, 2009) OR Zwolinski (2009)

Reference list

Zwolinski, M. (2009, September). Effects of study habits on scholastic achievement. Paper presented at the Third Semi-annual Meeting of the Anderson Society for Educational Measurement, San Diego, CA.

For pamphlets/brochures, provide as much information as needed for the reader to locate the original source of the material.

Pamphlet

In-text

(Silverlon, 2012) OR Silverlon (2012)

Reference list

Silverlon, (2012). Calcium alginate dressing for post-surgical wounds. [Pamphlet]. Fremantle, Australia: Fremantle Hospital.

Titles of "standalone" documents (e.g. PDF, Word, PowerPoint, or other document formats ) on a website are italicised. Standalone documents in this context are resources that do not fall into standard categories, including reports, presentations, white papers and other grey literature.

PDF (or standalone document) found on website

In-text

(Save the Children UK, 2007) OR Save the Children UK (2007)

Reference list

Save the Children UK. (2007). Legacy of disasters: The impact of climate change on children. Retrieved from http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/docs/legacy-of-disasters_1.pdf

Powerpoint slides - online

In-text

(Casey, 2014) OR Casey (2014)

Reference list

Casey, A. (2014). Developing a pedagogy of technology in physical education [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/DrAshCasey/developing-a-pedagogy-of-technology-in-physical-education

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Specialist subject material

Legislation: Include the "short title" of the Act (as specified in Section 1 of the Act), and the relevant jurisdictional notation.
Cases: For more information on Case citation elements, see AGLC Cases and for Legislation see AGLC Legislation

Legislation (Acts)

In-text

(Mental Health Act 1996) OR Mental Health Act 1996

Reference list

Mental Health Act 1996 (WA).

Cases

In-text

(Malouf v AME Properties [2007]) OR Malouf v AME Properties [2007]

Reference list

Malouf v AME Properties Pty Ltd [2007] FCA 1616.

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH)

In-text

(“Paracetamol”, 2015) OR “Paracetamol” (2015)

Reference list

Paracetamol. (2015). In AMH: Australian medicines handbook. Retrieved from http://www.amhonline.net.au
 

BMJ Best Practice

The date in brackets is the date that the page was last updated.

In-text

(Kreindler & Goldfarb, 2010) OR Kriendler and Goldfarb (2010)

Reference list

Kreindler J. L., & Goldfarb, S. B. (2010, December 9). Cystic fibrosis. In BMJ best practice. Retrieved from http://bestpractice.bmj.com
 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Treat articles from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews like an online journal. Numbered issues are published 12 times a year, and each article has its own DOI.

In-text

(Singh, Kour, & Jayaram Mahesh 2012) OR Singh, Kour, and Jayaram Mahesh (2012)

Reference list

Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterae inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(1), 1–101. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2
 

DSM-V - book

First in-text citation

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2013) OR American Psychological Association (APA, 2013)

Subsequent in-text citations (APA, 2013) OR APA (2013) \

Reference list

American Psychological Association. (2013). Personality disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm18
 

eTG Complete

In-text

("Severe sepsis and shock", 2014) OR "Severe sepsis and shock" (2014)

Reference list

Severe sepsis and shock. (2014). In eTG Complete. Retrieved from http://online.tg.org.au
 

JBI Connect

All JBI publications are cited in a conventional manner with originating authors. List the publication type in square brackets. If there is no author listed, cite The Joanna Briggs Institute as the author. Use the URL http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org for all retrieval statements.

In-text

(Kavanagh, 2013) OR Kavanagh (2013)

Reference list

Kavanagh, S. (2013). Care of the patient with severe facial burns- topical ointment/cream [Recommended practice sheet]. The Joanna Briggs Institute. Retrieved from http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/
 

MIMS Online

In-text

("Panadol", 2011) OR "Panadol" (2011)

Reference list

Panadol. (2011). In MIMS Online. Retrieved from http://www.mimsonline.com.au
 

UptoDate

Authors and editors are listed at the top of each article. Deputy editor(s) are used as the editors for the reference. Use the UptoDate homepage as the URL, along with a retrieval statement. See the following example for guidance:

Author, A.A. (Year of last update). Title of the article. In E. Editor, (Ed.), UptoDate. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com


In-text

(Fanta, 2017) OR Fanta (2017)

Reference list

Fanta, C. H. (2017). An overview of asthma management. In H. Hollingsworth, (Ed.), UptoDate. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com

Encyclopaedias and dictionaries are formatted similarly to chapters in edited books, but without page numbers. If there is no author listed for the individual entry, list the title of the entry in place of the author, and enclose the entry name in quotation marks for the in-text reference.

Online encyclopaedia

In-text

(Fiala, 2018) OR Fiala (2018)

Reference list

Fiala, A. (2018). Pacifism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pacifism/

Print encyclopaedia

In-text
("Causality", 2001) OR "Causality" (2001)

Reference list

Causality. (2001). In J. M. Last (Ed.). A dictionary of epidemiology (4th ed., p. 26). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Online dictionary

In-text

("Ethnography", 2004) OR "Ethnography" (2004)

Reference list

Ethnography. (2004). In C. Barker, The SAGE dictionary of cultural studies. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com

Print dictionary

In-text

("Baroque", 1992) OR "Baroque" (1992)

Reference list

Baroque. (1992). In J. M. Hughes, P. A. Michell and W. S. Ransom (Eds.),  The Australian concise Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

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Secondary reference (source within a source)

Secondary references: Secondary referencing is when you quote or paraphrase from a source which is mentioned in another text. Always try to locate the original source rather than using a secondary reference. If you’re unable to trace the original, make it clear that you are citing a work that has been cited by another. The reference list entry should show the source you have actually read so, as per the example below, you would provide the details for Bate in the reference list, not Somekh.

In-text

Somekh (as cited in Bate, 2010) found that... OR (Somekh as cited in Bate, 2010) OR Bate (2010) describes Somekh's recent research on...

Reference list

Bate, F. (2010). A bridge too far? Explaining beginning teachers' use of ICT in Australian schools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 1042-1061. doi:10.14742/ajet.1033

 

Statistics

Australian Bureau of Statistics document

First in-text citation

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2016) OR (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2016)

Subsequent in-text citation

(ABS, 2016) OR ABS (2016)

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Marriages and divorces, Australia, 2016 (Cat. No. 3310.0). Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/893C1288678FD232CA2568A90013939C?Opendocument

Government report - online

First in-text citation

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2010) OR Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2010)

Subsequent in-text citations

(AIHW, 2010) OR AIHW (2010)

Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2010). 2010 pandemic vaccination survey: Summary results (Cat. No. PHE 128). Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/11374

Data set - with DOI

In-text

Grigg (2006) OR (Grigg, 2006)

Reference list

Grigg, G.C. (2006). Red kangaroo counts [Data set]. doi:10.14264/uql.2014.1
 

Data set - without DOI

In-text

Australian Health Policy Collaboration (2017) OR (Australian Health Policy Collaboration, 2017)

Reference list

Australian Health Policy Collaboration (2017). Australia's Health Tracker Atlas: Data by Population Health Area (PHA) [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.atlasesaustralia.com.au/ahpc/data.html

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Course materials

Lecture slides: retrieved from Blackboard

In-text

Hay (2018) OR (Hay, 2018)

Reference list

Hay, B. (2018). Understanding research methods in Health Informatics [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from The University of Notre Dame Australia NURS3020 Blackboard site.

University course workbook

In-text

Patman (2017) OR (Patman, 2017)

Reference list

Patman, S. (2017). PHTY202: Cardiorespiratory physiotherapy sciences 1: Practical sessions workbook. Fremantle, WA: University of Notre Dame Australia.

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