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APA Referencing

Main elements

Religious and classical works are cited differently from most other forms of material. These items are often thousands of years old, have been published multiple times and in many languages, and are well known throughout the world. Therefore, you only need to cite these items within the text of your essay (not in the reference list), unless you are using a translated copy.

Translations are common with classical Greek or Roman texts, and you will usually be able to find translation details on the title page or cover. Because translations can vary, you should include the information for the specific item you are using in your reference list.

Bible, commentaries, and other sacred works

Items such as the Bible do not require an author, but you need to specify which version you are using in brackets the first time you refer to the Bible in text. Always use the chapter and verse, rather than page numbers.

Bible

In-text

The Bible (King James Version) is the record of...

Bible - direct quote

In-text

"And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it" (John 1:5 King James Version).

Bible - paraphrase

In-text

Even those who do not study the Bible are likely to know John 3:16, wherein God sacrifices His Son to save the world from itself.

Bible commentary with unidentified authors

In-text
(The Psalms, 2003) OR The Psalms (2003)

Reference list

The Navarre Bible: The Psalms. (2003). Dublin, Ireland: Four Courts Press.

Bible commentary with two authors

In-text
In their exegesis of Mark's Gospel 3:7 to 8:22, Donahue and Harrington (2002) observe "we learn more about Jesus as a teacher and healer" (p. 23). OR (Donahue & Harrington, 2002, p. 23)

Reference list

Donahue, J. R., & Harrington, D. J. (2002). Sacra Pagina: Vol. 2. The Gospel of Mark. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.

Single volume Bible commentary with multiple authors (treat as chapter in an edited work)

In-text
(Brown & Collins, 1991) OR Brown and Collins (1991)

Reference list

Brown, R. E., & Collins, T. A. (1991). Church pronouncements. In R. Brown, J. Fitzmyer, & R. Murphy (Eds.), The new Jerome Biblical commentary (pp. 1166-1174). London, United Kingdom: Geoffrey Chapman.

Qur'an - direct quote

In-text

"Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury" (Qur'an 2:263).

Qur'an - paraphrase

In-text

The Qur'an 2:263 promotes the value of compassion over retaliation.

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Religious works

In-text references to papal documents would benefit from the inclusion of the relevant section number(s), regardless of whether you are quoting or paraphrasing.


In-text
Pope John Paul II (1995) depicts the certainty of future immortality as casting new light on the mystery of suffering and death (section 67). OR (John Paul II, 1995, section 67)
 

Papal document - online

Reference list

John Paul II. (1995). Evangelium vitae [Encyclical letter]. Retrieved from http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031995_evangelium-vitae.html

Papal document - print

Reference list

John Paul II. (1995). The gospel of life: Evangelium vitae. New York, NY: Random House.

In-text references to conciliar documents would benefit from the inclusion of the relevant section number(s), regardless of whether you are quoting or paraphrasing.


In-text
Vatican Council II (1975, section 14) OR (Vatican Council II, 1975, section 14)

Reference list

Vatican Council II. (1975). Dogmatic constitution on the Church, lumen gentium, 21 November, 1964. In A. Flannery (Ed.), Vatican Council II: The conciliar and post conciliar documents (pp. 350-426). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.

Use paragraph numbers when citing either the print or online version of the Catechism, not page numbers or section numbers.


First in-text citation
In the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC, 1997) charity is described as "the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God" (para. 1822). OR (Catechism of the Catholic Church [CCC], 1997, para. 1822)

Subsequent in-text citations
CCC (1997, para. 1827) OR (CCC, 1997, para. 1827)

Catechism - online

Please note: Currently only the first edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is available on the Vatican website, it is therefore recommended that you access the second edition, as cited below, if using an online version.


Reference list
Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). (1997). Retrieved from http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc.htm

Catechism - print

Reference list

Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). (1997). Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

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Classical works

In your reference list, place the translator's name in brackets after the title, along with the abbreviation Trans. Use the date of the translated work for publication year and add the date of the original work in brackets at the end of the reference. Use both dates (original date/translated date) in the in-text citation.

 

Modern edition of translated classic

In-text

(Aristotle, 350 B.C./1926) OR Aristotle (350 B.C./1926)

Reference list

Aristotle. (1926). Nicomachean ethics (H. Rackham, Trans.). doi:10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-nicomachean_ethics.1926. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.)

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